The space Lp(X) consists of (equivalence classes of) all Bochner measurable functions f with values in the Banach space X whose norm ||f||X lies in the standard Lp space. Thus, if X is the set of complex numbers, it is the standard Lebesgue Lp space.
Bochner spaces are often used in the functional analysis approach to the study of partial differential equations that depend on time, e.g. the heat equation: if the temperature is a scalar function of time and space, one can write to make f a family f(t) (parametrized by time) of functions of space, possibly in some Bochner space.
Given a measure space (T, Σ, μ), a Banach space (X, || · ||X) and 1 ≤ p ≤ +∞, the Bochner space Lp(T; X) is defined to be the Kolmogorov quotient (by equality almost everywhere) of the space of all Bochner measurable functions u : T → X such that the corresponding norm is finite:
In other words, as is usual in the study of Lp spaces, Lp(T; X) is a space of equivalence classes of functions, where two functions are defined to be equivalent if they are equal everywhere except upon a μ-measure zero subset of T. As is also usual in the study of such spaces, it is usual to abuse notation and speak of a "function" in Lp(T; X) rather than an equivalence class (which would be more technically correct).
Application to PDE theory
Very often, the space T is an interval of time over which we wish to solve some partial differential equation, and μ will be one-dimensional Lebesgue measure. The idea is to regard a function of time and space as a collection of functions of space, this collection being parametrized by time. For example, in the solution of the heat equation on a region Ω in Rn and an interval of time [0, T], one seeks solutions
with time derivative
Here denotes the Sobolev Hilbert space of once-weakly differentiable functions with first weak derivative in L²(Ω) that vanish at the boundary of Ω (in the sense of trace, or, equivalently, are limits of smooth functions with compact support in Ω); denotes the dual space of .