{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Use dmy dates |date=__DATE__ |$B= }} A complex quadratic polynomial is a quadratic polynomial whose coefficients are complex numbers.

## Forms

When the quadratic polynomial has only one variable (univariate), one can distinguish its 4 main forms:

The monic and centered form has the following properties:

## Conjugation

### Between forms

Since ${\displaystyle f_{c}(x)\,}$ is affine conjugate to the general form of the quadratic polynomial it is often used to study complex dynamics and to create images of Mandelbrot, Julia and Fatou sets.

${\displaystyle c=c(\theta )={\frac {e^{2\pi \theta i}}{2}}\left(1-{\frac {e^{2\pi \theta i}}{2}}\right)}$.

When one wants change from ${\displaystyle r\,}$ to ${\displaystyle c\,}$:[5]

${\displaystyle c=c(r)\,=\,{\frac {1-(r-1)^{2}}{4}}}$.

### With doubling map

There is semi-conjugacy between the dyadic transformation (here named doubling map) and the quadratic polynomial.

## Family

The family of quadratic polynomials ${\displaystyle f_{c}:z\to z^{2}+c\,}$ parametrised by ${\displaystyle c\in \mathbb {C} \,}$ is called:

## Map

The monic and centered form is typically used with variable ${\displaystyle z\,}$ and parameter ${\displaystyle c\,}$:

${\displaystyle f_{c}(z)=z^{2}+c.\,}$

When it is used as an evolution function of the discrete nonlinear dynamical system:

${\displaystyle z_{n+1}=f_{c}(z_{n})\,}$

${\displaystyle f_{c}:z\to z^{2}+c.\,}$

This iteration leads to the Mandelbrot set.

## Notation

Here ${\displaystyle f^{n}\,}$ denotes the n-th iteration of the function ${\displaystyle f\,}$ not exponentiation

${\displaystyle f_{c}^{n}(z)=f_{c}^{1}(f_{c}^{n-1}(z))\,}$

so

${\displaystyle z_{n}=f_{c}^{n}(z_{0}).\,}$

Because of the possible confusion it is customary to write ${\displaystyle f^{\circ n}\,}$ for the nth iterate of the function ${\displaystyle f.\,}$

## Critical items

### Critical point

A critical point of ${\displaystyle f_{c}\,}$ is a point ${\displaystyle z_{cr}\,}$ in the dynamical plane such that the derivative vanishes:

${\displaystyle f_{c}'(z_{cr})=0.\,}$

Since

${\displaystyle f_{c}'(z)={\frac {d}{dz}}f_{c}(z)=2z}$

implies

${\displaystyle z_{cr}=0\,}$

we see that the only (finite) critical point of ${\displaystyle f_{c}\,}$ is the point ${\displaystyle z_{cr}=0\,}$.

${\displaystyle z_{0}}$ is an initial point for Mandelbrot set iteration.[8]

### Critical value

A critical value ${\displaystyle z_{cv}\ }$ of ${\displaystyle f_{c}\,}$ is the image of a critical point:

${\displaystyle z_{cv}=f_{c}(z_{cr})\,}$

Since

${\displaystyle z_{cr}=0\,}$

we have

${\displaystyle z_{cv}=c.\,}$

So the parameter ${\displaystyle c\,}$ is the critical value of ${\displaystyle f_{c}(z).\,}$

### Critical orbit

Dynamical plane with critical orbit falling into 3-period cycle
Dynamical plane with Julia set and critical orbit.
Dynamical plane : changes of critical orbit along internal ray of main cardioid for angle 1/6
Critical orbit tending to weakly attracting fixed point with abs(multiplier)=0.99993612384259

Forward orbit of a critical point is called a critical orbit. Critical orbits are very important because every attracting periodic orbit attracts a critical point, so studying the critical orbits helps us understand the dynamics in the Fatou set.[9][10]

This orbit falls into an attracting periodic cycle.

### Critical sector

The critical sector is a sector of the dynamical plane containing the critical point.

### Critical polynomial

so

These polynomials are used for:

• finding centers of these Mandelbrot set components of period n. Centers are roots of n-th critical polynomials

### Critical curves

Diagrams of critical polynomials are called critical curves.[11]

These curves create skeleton of bifurcation diagram.[12] (the dark lines[13])

## Planes

w-plane and c-plane

One can use the Julia-Mandelbrot 4-dimensional space for a global analysis of this dynamical system.[14]

In this space there are 2 basic types of 2-D planes:

There is also another plane used to analyze such dynamical systems w-plane:

• the conjugation plane[15]
• model plane[16]

### Parameter plane

The phase space of a quadratic map is called its parameter plane. Here:

There is no dynamics here. It is only a set of parameter values. There are no orbits on the parameter plane.

The parameter plane consists of:

There are many different subtypes of the parameter plane.[18][19]

### Dynamical plane

On the dynamical plane one can find:

The dynamical plane consists of:

The two-dimensional dynamical plane can be treated as a Poincaré cross-section of three-dimensional space of continuous dynamical system.[20][21]

Dynamical z-planes can be divided in two groups :

## Derivatives

### Derivative with respect to c

On parameter plane:

The first derivative of ${\displaystyle f_{c}^{n}(z_{0})}$ with respect to c is

${\displaystyle z_{n}'={\frac {d}{dc}}f_{c}^{n}(z_{0}).}$

This derivative can be found by iteration starting with

${\displaystyle z_{0}'={\frac {d}{dc}}f_{c}^{0}(z_{0})=1}$

and then replacing at every consecutive step

${\displaystyle z_{n+1}'={\frac {d}{dc}}f_{c}^{n+1}(z_{0})=2\cdot {}f_{c}^{n}(z)\cdot {\frac {d}{dc}}f_{c}^{n}(z_{0})+1=2\cdot z_{n}\cdot z_{n}'+1.}$

This can easily be verified by using the chain rule for the derivative.

This derivative is used in the distance estimation method for drawing a Mandelbrot set.

### Derivative with respect to z

On dynamical plane:

at a fixed point ${\displaystyle z_{0}\,}$

${\displaystyle f_{c}'(z_{0})={\frac {d}{dz}}f_{c}(z_{0})=2z_{0}}$

at a periodic point z0 of period p

${\displaystyle (f_{c}^{p})'(z_{0})={\frac {d}{dz}}f_{c}^{p}(z_{0})=\prod _{i=0}^{p-1}f_{c}'(z_{i})=2^{p}\prod _{i=0}^{p-1}z_{i}.}$

It is used to check the stability of periodic (also fixed) points.

at nonperiodic point:

${\displaystyle z'_{n}\,}$

This derivative can be found by iteration starting with

${\displaystyle z'_{0}=1\,}$

and then :

${\displaystyle z'_{n}=2*z_{n-1}*z'_{n-1}\,}$

This dervative is used for computing external distance to Julia set.

### Schwarzian derivative

The Schwarzian derivative (SD for short) of f is:[22]

${\displaystyle (Sf)(z)={\frac {f'''(z)}{f'(z)}}-{\frac {3}{2}}\left({\frac {f''(z)}{f'(z)}}\right)^{2}}$.

## References

1. Michael Yampolsky, Saeed Zakeri : Mating Siegel quadratic polynomials.
2. B Branner: Holomorphic dynamical systems in the complex plane. Mat-Report No 1996-42. Technical University of Denmark
3. Alfredo Poirier : On Post Critically Finite Polynomials Part One: Critical Portraits
4. Michael Yampolsky, Saeed Zakeri : Mating Siegel quadratic polynomials.
5. stackexchange questions : Show that the familiar logistic map ...
6. Yunping Jing : Local connectivity of the Mandelbrot set at certain infinitely renormalizable points Complex Dynamics and Related Topics, New Studies in Advanced Mathematics, 2004, The International Press, 236-264
7. Weisstein, Eric W. "Quadratic Map." From MathWorld--A Wolfram Web Resourc
8. Java program by Dieter Röß showing result of changing initial point of Mandelbrot iterations
9. M. Romera, G. Pastor, and F. Montoya : Multifurcations in nonhyperbolic fixed points of the Mandelbrot map. Fractalia 6, No. 21, 10-12 (1997)
10. Burns A M : Plotting the Escape: An Animation of Parabolic Bifurcations in the Mandelbrot Set. Mathematics Magazine, Vol. 75, No. 2 (Apr., 2002), pp. 104-116
11. The Road to Chaos is Filled with Polynomial Curves by Richard D. Neidinger and R. John Annen III. American Mathematical Monthly, Vol. 103, No. 8, October 1996, pp. 640-653
12. {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}
13. M. Romera, G. Pastor and F. Montoya, "Misiurewicz points in one-dimensional quadratic maps", Physica A, 232 (1996), 517-535. Preprint
14. Julia-Mandelbrot Space at Mu-ency by Robert Munafo
15. Carleson, Lennart, Gamelin, Theodore W.: Complex Dynamics Series: Universitext, Subseries: Universitext: Tracts in Mathematics, 1st ed. 1993. Corr. 2nd printing, 1996, IX, 192 p. 28 illus., ISBN 978-0-387-97942-7
16. Holomorphic motions and puzzels by P Roesch
17. Lasse Rempe, Dierk Schleicher : Bifurcation Loci of Exponential Maps and Quadratic Polynomials: Local Connectivity, Triviality of Fibers, and Density of Hyperbolicity
18. Alternate Parameter Planes by David E. Joyce
19. exponentialmap by Robert Munafo
20. Mandelbrot set by Saratov group of theoretical nonlinear dynamics
21. Moehlis, Kresimir Josic, Eric T. Shea-Brown (2006) Periodic orbit. Scholarpedia,
22. The Schwarzian Derivative & the Critical Orbit by Wes McKinney 18.091 20 April 2005