# Cyclic subspace

In mathematics, in linear algebra, a cyclic subspace is a certain special subspace of a finite-dimensional vector space associated with a vector in the vector space and a linear transformation of the vector space. The cyclic subspace associated with a vector v in a vector space V and a linear transformation T of V is called the T-cyclic subspace generated by v. The concept of a cyclic subspace is a basic component in the formulation of the cyclic decomposition theorem in linear algebra.

## Definition

Let ${\displaystyle T:V\rightarrow V}$ be a linear transformation of a vector space ${\displaystyle V}$ and let ${\displaystyle v}$ be a vector in ${\displaystyle V}$. The ${\displaystyle T}$-cyclic subspace of ${\displaystyle V}$ generated by ${\displaystyle v}$ is the subspace ${\displaystyle W}$ of ${\displaystyle V}$ generated by the set of vectors ${\displaystyle \{v,T(v),T^{2}(v),\ldots ,T^{r}(v),\ldots \}}$. This subspace is denoted by ${\displaystyle Z(v;T)}$. If ${\displaystyle V=Z(v;T)}$, then ${\displaystyle v}$ is called a cyclic vector for ${\displaystyle T}$.[1]

There is another equivalent definition of cyclic spaces. Let ${\displaystyle T:V\rightarrow V}$ be a linear transformation of a finite dimensional vector space over a field ${\displaystyle F}$ and ${\displaystyle v}$ be a vector in ${\displaystyle V}$. The set of all vectors of the form ${\displaystyle g(T)v}$, where ${\displaystyle g(x)}$ is a polynomial in the ring ${\displaystyle F[x]}$ of all polynomials in ${\displaystyle x}$ over ${\displaystyle F}$, is the ${\displaystyle T}$-cyclic subspace generated by ${\displaystyle v}$.[1]

### Examples

1. For any vector space ${\displaystyle V}$ and any linear operator ${\displaystyle T}$ on ${\displaystyle V}$, the ${\displaystyle T}$-cyclic subspace generated by the zero vector is the zero-subspace of ${\displaystyle V}$.
2. If ${\displaystyle I}$ is the identity operator then every ${\displaystyle I}$-cyclic subspace is one-dimensional.
3. ${\displaystyle Z(v;T)}$ is one-dimensional if and only if ${\displaystyle v}$ is a characteristic vector of ${\displaystyle T}$.
4. Let ${\displaystyle V}$ be the two-dimensional vector space and let ${\displaystyle T}$ be the linear operator on ${\displaystyle V}$ represented by the matrix ${\displaystyle {\begin{bmatrix}0&1\\0&0\end{bmatrix}}}$ relative to the standard ordered basis of ${\displaystyle V}$. Let ${\displaystyle v={\begin{bmatrix}0\\1\end{bmatrix}}}$. Then ${\displaystyle Tv={\begin{bmatrix}1\\0\end{bmatrix}},\quad T^{2}v=0,\ldots ,T^{r}v=0,\ldots }$. Therefore ${\displaystyle \{v,T(v),T^{2}(v),\ldots ,T^{r}(v),\ldots \}=\left\{{\begin{bmatrix}0\\1\end{bmatrix}},{\begin{bmatrix}1\\0\end{bmatrix}}\right\}}$ and so ${\displaystyle Z(v;T)=V}$. Thus ${\displaystyle v}$ is a cyclic vector for ${\displaystyle T}$.

## Companion matrix

Let ${\displaystyle T:V\rightarrow V}$ be a linear transformation of a ${\displaystyle n-}$dimensional vector space ${\displaystyle V}$ over a field ${\displaystyle F}$ and ${\displaystyle v}$ be a cyclic vector for ${\displaystyle T}$. Then the vectors

${\displaystyle B=\{v_{1}=v,v_{2}=Tv,v_{3}=T^{2}v,\ldots v_{n}=T^{n-1}v\}}$

form an ordered basis for ${\displaystyle V}$. Let the characteristic polynomial for ${\displaystyle T}$ be

${\displaystyle p(x)=c_{0}+c_{1}x+c_{2}x^{2}+\cdots +c_{n-1}x^{n-1}+x^{n}}$.

Then

{\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}Tv_{1}&=v_{2}\\Tv_{2}&=v_{3}\\Tv_{3}&=v_{4}\\\vdots &\\Tv_{n-1}&=v_{n}\\Tv_{n}&=-c_{0}v_{1}-c_{1}v_{2}-\cdots c_{n-1}v_{n}\\\end{aligned}}}

Therefore, relative to the ordered basis ${\displaystyle B}$, the operator ${\displaystyle T}$ is represented by the matrix

${\displaystyle {\begin{bmatrix}0&0&0&\cdots &0&-c_{0}\\1&0&0&\ldots &0&-c_{1}\\0&1&0&\ldots &0&-c_{2}\\\vdots &&&&&\\0&0&0&\ldots &1&-c_{n-1}\\\end{bmatrix}}}$

This matrix is called the companion matrix of the polynomial ${\displaystyle p(x)}$.[1]