Gamma
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Greek alphabet  

Αα  Alpha  Νν  Nu 
Ββ  Beta  Ξξ  Xi 
Γγ  Gamma  Οο  Omicron 
Δδ  Delta  Ππ  Pi 
Εε  Epsilon  Ρρ  Rho 
Ζζ  Zeta  Σσς  Sigma 
Ηη  Eta  Ττ  Tau 
Θθ  Theta  Υυ  Upsilon 
Ιι  Iota  Φφ  Phi 
Κκ  Kappa  Χχ  Chi 
Λλ  Lambda  Ψψ  Psi 
Μμ  Mu  Ωω  Omega 
History  
Archaic local variants  
In other languages  
Scientific symbols  

Gamma (uppercase Γ{{#invoke:Category handlermain}}, lowercase γ{{#invoke:Category handlermain}}; Greek: Γάμμα{{#invoke:Category handlermain}} Gámma) is the third letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 3. It was derived from the Phoenician letter Gimel . Letters that arose from gamma include the Roman C and G and the Cyrillic letters Г and Ґ.^{[1]}
Uses
Greek
In Ancient Greek, gamma represented a voiced velar stop /ɡ/. In Modern Greek, it represents a voiced fricative. It is realized either as a palatal /ʝ/ (before a front vowel, /e, i/), or as a velar /ɣ/ (in all other environments).
Both in Ancient and in Modern Greek, before other velars (κ, χ, ξ k, kh, ks), gamma represents a velar nasal /ŋ/. A double gamma γγ represents the sequence /ŋɡ/ (phonetically varying [ŋɡ~ɡ]) or /ŋɣ/.
International Phonetic Alphabet
In the International Phonetic Alphabet, lowercase gamma (ɣ) represents the voiced velar fricative. A lowercase gamma that lies above the baseline rather than crossing it (ɤ) represents the closemid back unrounded vowel.
Mathematics and science
Lower case
The lowercase letter is used as a symbol for:
 Chromatic number of a graph, sometimes (Chi) is used, which is also used for the Euler characteristic
 Gamma radiation in nuclear physics
 The photon, the elementary particle of light
 Surface energy in materials science
 The Lorentz factor in theory of relativity
 The heat capacity ratio Cp/Cv in thermodynamics
 The activity coefficient in thermodynamics
 The gyromagnetic ratio in electromagnetism
 Gamma oscillation in neuroscience
 Gamma motoneurons in neuroscience
 Gamma is a nonSI metric unit of measure of mass equal to one microgram (1 μg).^{[2]} This alwaysrare use is currently deprecated.
 Gamma is also a nonSI unit of measure of magnetic flux density, sometimes used in geophysics, equal to 1 nanotesla (nT).
 The power by which the luminance of an image is increased in gamma correction
 The Euler–Mascheroni constant
 In mechanical engineering:
 Specific weight
 The shear rate of a fluid is represented by a lower case gamma with a dot above it:
 Austenite (also known as γiron), a metallic nonmagnetic allotrope or solid solution of iron.
 The gamma carbon is the third carbon attached to a functional group in Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry nomenclature; see Alpha and beta carbon
Upper case
The uppercase letter is used as a symbol for:
 In mathematics, the gamma function (usually written as function) is an extension of the factorial to complex numbers
 In probability theory and statistics, the gamma distribution is a twoparameter family of continuous probability distributions.
 Circulation in fluid mechanics
 As reflection coefficient in physics and electrical engineering
 The tape alphabet of a Turing machine
 The Feferman–Schütte ordinal Γ_{0}
Meteorology
 Gamma was one of the names used in the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season as Tropical Storm Gamma.
Technical notes
HTML
The HTML entities for uppercase and lowercase gamma are Γ
and γ
.
Unicode
 Greek Gamma
 Coptic Gamma
 Latin / phonetic Gamma
 CJK Square Gamma
 Technical / Mathematical Gamma
These characters are used only as mathematical symbols. Stylized Greek text should be encoded using the normal Greek letters, with markup and formatting to indicate text style.
See also
References
 ↑ Template:Cite web
 ↑ François Cardarelli (2003). Encyclopaedia of Scientific Units, Weights and Measures. SpringerVerlag London Ltd. ISBN 8791447111221.