Gamma

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Gamma uc lc.svg
Greek alphabet
Αα Alpha Νν Nu
Ββ Beta Ξξ Xi
Γγ Gamma Οο Omicron
Δδ Delta Ππ Pi
Εε Epsilon Ρρ Rho
Ζζ Zeta Σσς Sigma
Ηη Eta Ττ Tau
Θθ Theta Υυ Upsilon
Ιι Iota Φφ Phi
Κκ Kappa Χχ Chi
Λλ Lambda Ψψ Psi
Μμ Mu Ωω Omega
History
Archaic local variants
  • Digamma
  • Heta
  • San
  • Koppa
  • Sampi
  • Tsan
Numerals
ϛ (6)
ϟ (90)
ϡ (900)
In other languages
Scientific symbols

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Gamma (uppercase Γ{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}, lowercase γ{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}; Greek: Γάμμα{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} Gámma) is the third letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 3. It was derived from the Phoenician letter Gimel gimel. Letters that arose from gamma include the Roman C and G and the Cyrillic letters Г and Ґ.[1]

Uses

Greek

The alphabet on a black figure vessel, with a Λ-shaped gamma

In Ancient Greek, gamma represented a voiced velar stop /ɡ/. In Modern Greek, it represents a voiced fricative. It is realized either as a palatal /ʝ/ (before a front vowel, /e, i/), or as a velar /ɣ/ (in all other environments).

Both in Ancient and in Modern Greek, before other velars (κ, χ, ξ k, kh, ks), gamma represents a velar nasal /ŋ/. A double gamma γγ represents the sequence /ŋɡ/ (phonetically varying [ŋɡ~ɡ]) or /ŋɣ/.

International Phonetic Alphabet

In the International Phonetic Alphabet, lowercase gamma (ɣ) represents the voiced velar fricative. A lowercase gamma that lies above the baseline rather than crossing it (ɤ) represents the close-mid back unrounded vowel.

Mathematics and science

Lower case

The lower-case letter is used as a symbol for:

Upper case

The upper-case letter is used as a symbol for:

Meteorology

Technical notes

HTML

The HTML entities for uppercase and lowercase gamma are Γ and γ.

Unicode

  • Greek Gamma

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  • Coptic Gamma

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  • CJK Square Gamma

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  • Technical / Mathematical Gamma

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These characters are used only as mathematical symbols. Stylized Greek text should be encoded using the normal Greek letters, with markup and formatting to indicate text style.

See also

References

  1. Template:Cite web
  2. François Cardarelli (2003). Encyclopaedia of Scientific Units, Weights and Measures. Springer-Verlag London Ltd. ISBN 879-1-4471-1122-1.