Inner automorphism

From formulasearchengine
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Template:No footnotes

In abstract algebra an inner automorphism is a function which, informally, involves a certain operation being applied, then another operation (shown as x below) being performed, and then the initial operation being reversed. Sometimes the initial action and its subsequent reversal change the overall result ("raise umbrella, walk through rain, lower umbrella" has a different result from just "walk through rain"), and sometimes they do not ("take off left glove, take off right glove, put on left glove" has the same effect as "take off right glove only").

More formally an inner automorphism of a group G is a function:

ƒ: GG

defined for all x in G by

ƒ(x) = a−1xa,

where a is a given fixed element of G, and where we deem the action of group elements to occur on the right (so this would read "a times x times a−1").

The operation a−1xa is called conjugation (see also conjugacy class), and it is often of interest to distinguish the cases where conjugation by one element leaves another element unchanged (as in the "gloves" analogy above) from cases where conjugation generates a new element (as in the "umbrella" analogy).

In fact, saying

a−1xa = x ("conjugation by a leaves x unchanged")

is equivalent to saying

ax = xa. ("a and x commute")

Therefore the existence and number of inner automorphisms that are not the identity mapping is a kind of measure of the failure of the commutative law in the group.


The expression a−1xa is often denoted exponentially by xa. This notation is used because we have the rule (xa)b=xab (giving a right action of G on itself).


Every inner automorphism is indeed an automorphism of the group G, i.e. it is a bijective map from G to G and it is a homomorphism; meaning (xy)a = xaya.

Inner and outer automorphism groups

The composition of two inner automorphisms is again an inner automorphism (as mentioned above: (xa)b=xab), and with this operation, the collection of all inner automorphisms of G is itself a group, the inner automorphism group of G denoted Inn(G).

Inn(G) is a normal subgroup of the full automorphism group Aut(G) of G. The quotient group


is known as the outer automorphism group Out(G). The outer automorphism group measures, in a sense, how many automorphisms of G are not inner. Every non-inner automorphism yields a non-trivial element of Out(G), but different non-inner automorphisms may yield the same element of Out(G).

By associating the element a in G with the inner automorphism ƒ(x) = xa in Inn(G) as above, one obtains an isomorphism between the quotient group G/Z(G) (where Z(G) is the center of G) and the inner automorphism group:

G/Z(G) = Inn(G).

This is a consequence of the first isomorphism theorem, because Z(G) is precisely the set of those elements of G that give the identity mapping as corresponding inner automorphism (conjugation changes nothing).

Non-inner automorphisms of finite p-groups

A result of Wolfgang Gaschütz says that if G is a finite non-abelian p-group, then G has an automorphism of p-power order which is not inner.

It is an open problem whether every non-abelian p-group G has an automorphism of order p. The latter question has positive answer whenever G has one of the following conditions:

  1. G is nilpotent of class 2
  2. G is a regular p-group
  3. The centralizer CG(Z((G))) in G of the center of the Frattini subgroup (G) of G is not equal to (G)
  4. G/Z(G) is a powerful p-group

Types of groups

It follows that the group Inn(G) of inner automorphisms is itself trivial (i.e. consists only of the identity element) if and only if G is abelian.

Inn(G) can only be a cyclic group when it is trivial, by a basic result on the center of a group.

At the opposite end of the spectrum, it is possible that the inner automorphisms exhaust the entire automorphism group; a group whose automorphisms are all inner and whose centre is trivial is called complete. This is the case for all of the symmetric groups on n elements when n is not 2 or 6: when n=6 the symmetric group has a unique non-trivial class of outer automorphisms and when n=2 the symmetric group is abelian, therefore its centre is non-trivial so that even though it has no outer automorphisms it nevertheless is not complete.

If the inner automorphism group of a perfect group G is simple, then G is called quasisimple.

Ring case

Given a ring R and a unit u in R, the map ƒ(x) = u−1xu is a ring automorphism of R. The ring automorphisms of this form are called inner automorphisms of R. They form a normal subgroup of the automorphism group of R.

Lie algebra case

An automorphism of a Lie algebra is called an inner automorphism if it is of the form Adg, where Ad is the adjoint map and g is an element of a Lie group whose Lie algebra is . The notion of inner automorphism for Lie algebras is compatible with the notion for groups in the sense that an inner automorphism of a Lie group induces a unique inner automorphism of the corresponding Lie algebra.


If G arises as the group of units of a ring A, then an inner automorphism on G can be extended to a mapping on the projective line over A by the group of units of the matrix ring M2(A). In particular, the inner automorphisms of the classical groups can be extended in that way.


  • {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

|CitationClass=citation }}

  • {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

|CitationClass=citation }}

  • {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

|CitationClass=citation }}

  • {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

|CitationClass=citation }}

  • {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

|CitationClass=citation }}

  • {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

|CitationClass=citation }}

de:Automorphismus#Innere Automorphismen