# Koenigs function

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In mathematics, the Koenigs function is a function arising in complex analysis and dynamical systems. Introduced in 1884 by the French mathematician Gabriel Koenigs, it gives a canonical representation as dilations of a univalent holomorphic mapping, or a semigroup of mappings, of the unit disk in the complex numbers into itself.

## Existence and uniqueness of Koenigs function

Let D be the unit disk in the complex numbers. Let Template:Mvar be a holomorphic function mapping D into itself, fixing the point 0, with Template:Mvar not identically 0 and Template:Mvar not an automorphism of D, i.e. a Möbius transformation defined by a matrix in SU(1,1).

By the Denjoy-Wolff theorem, Template:Mvar leaves invariant each disk |z | < r and the iterates of Template:Mvar converge uniformly on compacta to 0: in fact for 0 < Template:Mvar < 1,

${\displaystyle |f(z)|\leq M(r)|z|}$

for |z | ≤ r with M(r ) < 1. Moreover Template:Mvar '(0) = Template:Mvar with 0 < |Template:Mvar| < 1.

Template:Harvtxt proved that there is a unique holomorphic function h defined on D, called the Koenigs function, such that Template:Mvar(0) = 0, Template:Mvar '(0) = 1 and Schröder's equation is satisfied,

${\displaystyle h(f(z))=f^{\prime }(0)h(z)~.}$

The function h is the uniform limit on compacta of the normalized iterates ${\displaystyle g_{n}(z)=\lambda ^{-n}f^{n}(z)}$. Moreover, if Template:Mvar is univalent, so is h.[1][2]

As a consequence, when Template:Mvar (and hence h) are univalent, D can be identified with the open domain U = h(D). Under this conformal identification, the mapping Template:Mvar becomes multiplication by Template:Mvar, a dilation on Template:Mvar.

### Proof

• Uniqueness. If k is another solution then, by analyticity, it suffices to show that k = h near 0. Let
${\displaystyle H=k\circ h^{-1}(z)}$
near 0. Thus H(0) =0, H'(0)=1 and, for |z | small,
${\displaystyle \lambda H(z)=\lambda h(k^{-1}(z))=h(f(k^{-1}(z))=h(k^{-1}(\lambda z)=H(\lambda z)~.}$
Substituting into the power series for H, it follows that H(z) = z near 0. Hence h = k near 0.
${\displaystyle |F(z)-1|\leq (1+|\lambda |^{-1})|z|}$
On the other hand,
${\displaystyle g_{n}(z)=z\prod _{j=0}^{n-1}F(f^{j}(z)).}$
Hence gn converges uniformly for |z| ≤ r by the Weierstrass M-test since
${\displaystyle \sum \sup _{|z|\leq r}|1-F\circ f^{j}(z)|\leq (1+|\lambda |^{-1})\sum M(r)^{j}<\infty .}$
• Univalence. By Hurwitz's theorem, since each gn is univalent and normalized, i.e. fixes 0 and has derivative 1 there , their limit h is also univalent.

## Koenigs function of a semigroup

Let ft (z) be a semigroup of holomorphic univalent mappings of Template:Mvar into itself fixing 0 defined for t ∈ [0, ∞) such that

Each fs with Template:Mvar > 0 has the same Koenigs function, cf. iterated function. In fact, if h is the Koenigs function of f = f1, then h(fs(z)) satisfies Schroeder's equation and hence is proportion to h.

Taking derivatives gives

${\displaystyle h(f_{s}(z))=f_{s}^{\prime }(0)h(z).}$

Hence Template:Mvar is the Koenigs function of fs.

## Structure of univalent semigroups

On the domain U = h(D), the maps fs become multiplication by ${\displaystyle \lambda (s)=f_{s}^{\prime }(0)}$, a continuous semigroup. So ${\displaystyle \lambda (s)=e^{\mu s}}$ where μ is a uniquely determined solution of ${\displaystyle e^{\mu }=\lambda }$ with Re μ < 0. It follows that the semigroup is differentiable at 0. Let

${\displaystyle v(z)=\partial _{t}f_{t}(z)|_{t=0},}$

a holomorphic function on D with v(0) = 0 and v'(0) = Template:Mvar. Then

${\displaystyle \partial _{t}(f_{t}(z))h^{\prime }(f_{t}(z))=\mu e^{\mu t}h(z)=\mu h(f_{t}(z)),}$

so that

${\displaystyle v=v^{\prime }(0){h \over h^{\prime }}}$

and

${\displaystyle \partial _{t}f_{t}(z)=v(f_{t}(z)),\,\,\,f_{t}(z)=0}$

the flow equation for a vector field.

Restricting to the case with 0 < λ < 1, the h(D) must be starlike so that

${\displaystyle \Re {zh^{\prime }(z) \over h(z)}\geq 0}$

Since the same result holds for the reciprocal,

${\displaystyle \Re {v(z) \over z}\leq 0.}$

so that v(z) satisfies the conditions of Template:Harvtxt

${\displaystyle v(z)=zp(z),\,\,\,\Re p(z)\leq 0,\,\,\,p^{\prime }(0)<0.}$

Conversely, reversing the above steps, any holomorphic vector field v(z) satisfying these conditions is associated to a semigroup ft, with

${\displaystyle h(z)=z\exp \int _{0}^{z}{v^{\prime }(0) \over v(w)}-{1 \over w}\,dw.}$

## References

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