# List of thermodynamic properties

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Thermodynamic properties and their characteristics
Property Symbol Units Extensive? Intensive? Conjugate Potential? State
qty.
?
Process
qty.
?
Activity ${\displaystyle a}$ Template:Spaced ndash Template:Aye Template:Aye
Altitude m Template:Aye Template:Aye
Chemical potential ${\displaystyle \mu _{i}}$ kJ/mol Template:Aye Particle
number ${\displaystyle N_{i}}$
Template:Aye
Compressibility (adiabatic) ${\displaystyle \beta _{S}}$, ${\displaystyle \kappa }$ Pa−1 Template:Aye Template:Aye
Compressibility (isothermal) ${\displaystyle \beta _{T}}$, ${\displaystyle \kappa }$ Pa−1 Template:Aye Template:Aye
Cryoscopic constant[1] ${\displaystyle K_{f}}$ K·kg/mol
Density ${\displaystyle \rho }$ kg/m3 Template:Aye Template:Aye
Ebullioscopic constant ${\displaystyle K_{b}}$
Enthalpy ${\displaystyle H}$ J Template:Aye Template:Aye Template:Aye
Template:SpaceSpecific enthalpy ${\displaystyle h}$ J/kg Template:Aye Template:Aye
Entropy ${\displaystyle S}$ J/K Template:Aye Temperature ${\displaystyle T}$ Template:Aye (entropic) Template:Aye
Template:Space↳ Specific entropy ${\displaystyle s}$ J/(kg K) Template:Aye Template:Aye
Fugacity ${\displaystyle f}$ N/m² Template:Aye Template:Aye
Gas constant ${\displaystyle R,{\bar {R}}}$ J/K Template:Aye
Template:SpaceSpecific gas constant
Template:Space(for a particular substance)
${\displaystyle R_{S}}$ J/(kg K) Template:Aye
Gibbs free energy ${\displaystyle G}$ J Template:Aye Template:Aye Template:Aye
Template:Space↳ Specific Gibbs free entropy ${\displaystyle g}$ J/(kg K) Template:Aye Template:Aye
Gibbs free entropy ${\displaystyle \Xi }$ J/K Template:Aye Template:Aye (entropic) Template:Aye
Grand / Landau potential ${\displaystyle \Omega }$ J Template:Aye Template:Aye Template:Aye
Heat ${\displaystyle Q}$ J Template:Aye Template:Aye
Heat capacity (constant pressure) ${\displaystyle C_{p}}$ J/K Template:Aye Template:Aye
Template:SpaceSpecific heat capacity
Template:Space(constant pressure)
${\displaystyle c_{p}}$ J/(kg·K) Template:Aye Template:Aye
Heat capacity (constant volume) ${\displaystyle C_{v}}$ J/K Template:Aye Template:Aye
Template:SpaceSpecific heat capacity
Template:Space(constant volume)
${\displaystyle c_{v}}$ J/(kg·K) Template:Aye Template:Aye
Helmholtz free energy ${\displaystyle A}$, ${\displaystyle F}$ J Template:Aye Template:Aye Template:Aye
Helmholtz free entropy ${\displaystyle \Phi }$ J/K Template:Aye Template:Aye (entropic) Template:Aye
Internal energy ${\displaystyle U}$ J Template:Aye Template:Aye Template:Aye
Template:SpaceSpecific internal energy ${\displaystyle u}$ J/kg Template:Aye Template:Aye
Internal pressure ${\displaystyle \pi _{T}}$ Pa Template:Aye Template:Aye
Mass ${\displaystyle m}$ kg Template:Aye
Particle number ${\displaystyle N_{i}}$ Template:Spaced ndash Template:Aye Chemical
potential ${\displaystyle \mu _{i}}$
Pressure ${\displaystyle p}$ Pa Template:Aye Volume ${\displaystyle V}$ Template:Aye
Temperature ${\displaystyle T}$ K Template:Aye Entropy ${\displaystyle S}$ Template:Aye
Thermal conductivity ${\displaystyle k}$ W/(m·K) Template:Aye Template:Aye
Thermal diffusivity ${\displaystyle \alpha }$ m²/s Template:Aye Template:Aye
Thermal expansion (linear) ${\displaystyle \alpha _{L}}$ K−1 Template:Aye Template:Aye
Thermal expansion (area) ${\displaystyle \alpha _{A}}$ K−1 Template:Aye Template:Aye
Thermal expansion (volumetric) ${\displaystyle \alpha _{V}}$ K−1 Template:Aye Template:Aye
Vapor quality[2] ${\displaystyle \chi }$ Template:Spaced ndash Template:Aye Template:Aye
Volume ${\displaystyle V}$ m3 Template:Aye Pressure ${\displaystyle P}$ Template:Aye
Template:SpaceSpecific volume ${\displaystyle v}$ m3/kg Template:Aye Template:Aye
Work ${\displaystyle W}$ J Template:Aye Template:Aye

Specific properties are expressed on a per mass basis; in some circumstances other dimensions could be used, such as per-mole.

Regarding Work and Heat:

Note that work and heat above are listed as process quantities: They are, in fact, not thermodynamic properties, but flows of energy across a system boundary. Systems do not contain work, but can perform work, and likewise, in formal thermodynamics, systems do not contain heat, but can transfer heat. Informally, however, a difference in the energy of a system that occurs solely because of a difference in its temperature is commonly called heat, and the energy that flows across a boundary as a result of a temperature difference is, in fact, heat in the technical sense.