nth root
In mathematics, the nth root of a number x, where n is a positive integer, is a number r which, when raised to the power n yields x
where n is the degree of the root. A root of degree 2 is called a square root and a root of degree 3, a cube root. Roots of higher degree are referred by using ordinal numbers, as in fourth root, twentieth root, etc.
For example:
 2 is a square root of 4, since 2^{2} = 4.
 −2 is also a square root of 4, since (−2)^{2} = 4.
A real number or complex number has n roots of degree n. While the roots of 0 are not distinct (all equaling 0), the n nth roots of any other real or complex number are all distinct. If n is even and x is real and positive, one of its nth roots is positive, one is negative, and the rest are complex but not real; if n is even and x is real and negative, none of the nth roots is real. If n is odd and x is real, one nth root is real and has the same sign as the radicand , while the other roots are not real.
Roots are usually written using the radical symbol or radix or , with or denoting the square root, denoting the cube root, denoting the fourth root, and so on. In the expression , n is called the index, is the radical sign or radix, and x is called the radicand. When a number is presented under the radical symbol, it must return only one result like a function, so a nonnegative real root, called the principal nth root, is preferred rather than others. An unresolved root, especially one using the radical symbol, is often referred to as a surd^{[1]} or a radical.^{[2]} Any expression containing a radical, whether it is a square root, a cube root, or a higher root, is called a radical expression, and if it contains no transcendental functions or transcendental numbers it is called an algebraic expression.
In calculus, roots are treated as special cases of exponentiation, where the exponent is a fraction:
Roots are particularly important in the theory of infinite series; the root test determines the radius of convergence of a power series. Nth roots can also be defined for complex numbers, and the complex roots of 1 (the roots of unity) play an important role in higher mathematics. Galois theory can be used to determine which algebraic numbers can be expressed using roots, and to prove the AbelRuffini theorem, which states that a general polynomial equation of degree five or higher cannot be solved using roots alone; this result is also known as "the insolubility of the quintic".
Contents
History
The origin of the root symbol √ is largely speculative. Some sources imply that the symbol was first used by Arabic mathematicians. One of those mathematicians was Abū alHasan ibn Alī alQalasādī (1421–1486). Legend has it that it was taken from the Arabic letter "Template:Rtllang" (ǧīm, Template:IPAcen), which is the first letter in the Arabic word "Template:Rtllang" (jadhir, meaning "root"; Template:IPAcen).^{[3]} However, many scholars, including Leonhard Euler,^{[4]} believe it originates from the letter "r", the first letter of the Latin word "radix" (meaning "root"), referring to the same mathematical operation. The symbol was first seen in print without the vinculum (the horizontal "bar" over the numbers inside the radical symbol) in the year 1525 in Die Coss by Christoff Rudolff, a German mathematician.
The term surd traces back to alKhwārizmī (c. 825), who referred to rational and irrational numbers as audible and inaudible, respectively. This later led to the Arabic word "Template:Rtllang" (asamm, meaning "deaf" or "dumb") for irrational number being translated into Latin as "surdus" (meaning "deaf" or "mute"). Gerard of Cremona (c. 1150), Fibonacci (1202), and then Robert Recorde (1551) all used the term to refer to unresolved irrational roots.^{[5]} In the U.S., an early contributor to its understanding was a littleknown African American mathematician, Charles T. Gidiney who in 1843 proposed an innovative solution: "A Consice Method of Extracting the Fourth Root: Example.".^{[6]}Template:Verify source
Definition and notation
The nth root of a number x, where n is a positive integer, is a number r whose nth power is x:
Every positive real number x has a single positive nth root, which is written . For n equal to 2 this is called the square root and the n is omitted. The nth root can also be represented using exponentiation as x^{1/n}.
For even values of n, positive numbers also have a negative nth root, while negative numbers do not have a real nth root. For odd values of n, every negative number x has a real negative nth root. For example, −2 has a real 5th root, but −2 does not have any real 6th roots.
Every nonzero number x, real or complex, has n different complex number nth roots including any positive or negative roots. The nth root of 0 is 0.
The nth roots of almost all numbers (all integers except the nth powers, and all rationals except the quotients of two nth powers) are irrational. For example,
All nth roots of integers, or in fact of any algebraic number, are algebraic.
The character codes for the radical symbols are
Read  Character  Unicode  ASCII  URL  HTML (others) 

Square root  √  U+221A  √ 
%E2%88%9A 
√

Cube root  ∛  U+221B  ∛ 
%E2%88%9B 

Fourth root  ∜  U+221C  ∜ 
%E2%88%9C 
Square roots
{{#invoke:mainmain}} A square root of a number x is a number r which, when squared, becomes x:
Every positive real number has two square roots, one positive and one negative. For example, the two square roots of 25 are 5 and −5. The positive square root is also known as the principal square root, and is denoted with a radical sign:
Since the square of every real number is a positive real number, negative numbers do not have real square roots. However, every negative number has two imaginary square roots. For example, the square roots of −25 are 5i and −5i, where i represents a square root of −1.
Cube roots
{{#invoke:mainmain}} A cube root of a number x is a number r whose cube is x:
Every real number x has exactly one real cube root, written . For example,
Every real number has two additional complex cube roots.
Identities and properties
Every positive real number has a positive nth root and the rules for operations with such surds are straightforward:
Using the exponent form as in normally makes it easier to cancel out powers and roots.
Problems can occur when taking the nth roots of negative or complex numbers. For instance:
whereas
when taking the principal value of the roots.
Simplified form of a radical expression
A nonnested radical expression is said to be in simplified form if^{[7]}
 There is no factor of the radicand that can be written as a power greater than or equal to the index.
 There are no fractions under the radical sign.
 There are no radicals in the denominator.
For example, to write the radical expression in simplified form, we can proceed as follows. First, look for a perfect square under the square root sign and remove it:
Next, there is a fraction under the radical sign, which we change as follows:
Finally, we remove the radical from the denominator as follows:
When there is a denominator involving surds it is always possible to find a factor to multiply both numerator and denominator by to simplify the expression.^{[8]}^{[9]} For instance using the factorization of the sum of two cubes:
Simplifying radical expressions involving nested radicals can be quite difficult. It is not immediately obvious for instance that:
Infinite series
The radical or root may be represented by the infinite series:
with . This expression can be derived from the binomial series.
Computing principal roots
The nth root of an integer is not always an integer, and if it is not an integer then it is not a rational number. For instance, the fifth root of 34 is
where the dots signify that the decimal expression does not end after any finite number of digits. Since in this example the digits after the decimal never enter a repeating pattern, the number is irrational.
The nth root of a number A can be computed by the nth root algorithm, a special case of Newton's method. Start with an initial guess x_{0} and then iterate using the recurrence relation
until the desired precision is reached.
Depending on the application, it may be enough to use only the first Newton approximant:
For example, to find the fifth root of 34, note that 2^{5} = 32 and thus take x = 2, n = 5 and y = 2 in the above formula. This yields
The error in the approximation is only about 0.03%.
Newton's method can be modified to produce a generalized continued fraction for the nth root which can be modified in various ways as described in that article. For example:
In the case of the fifth root of 34 above (after dividing out selected common factors):
Digitbydigit calculation of principal roots of decimal (base 10) numbers
Building on the digitbydigit calculation of a square root, it can be seen that the formula used there, , or , follows a pattern involving Pascal's triangle. For the nth root of a number is defined as the value of element in row of Pascal's Triangle such that , we can rewrite the expression as . For convenience, call the result of this expression . Using this more general expression, any positive principal root can be computed, digitbydigit, as follows.
Write the original number in decimal form. The numbers are written similar to the long division algorithm, and, as in long division, the root will be written on the line above. Now separate the digits into groups of digits equating to the root being taken, starting from the decimal point and going both left and right. The decimal point of the root will be above the decimal point of the square. One digit of the root will appear above each group of digits of the original number.
Beginning with the leftmost group of digits, do the following procedure for each group:
 Starting on the left, bring down the most significant (leftmost) group of digits not yet used (if all the digits have been used, write "0" the number of times required to make a group) and write them to the right of the remainder from the previous step (on the first step, there will be no remainder). In other words, multiply the remainder by and add the digits from the next group. This will be the current value c.
 Find p and x, as follows:
 Subtract from to form a new remainder.
 If the remainder is zero and there are no more digits to bring down, then the algorithm has terminated. Otherwise go back to step 1 for another iteration.
Examples
Find the square root of 152.2756.
1 2. 3 4 / \/ 01 52.27 56 01 10^{0}·1·0^{0}·1^{2} + 10^{1}·2·0^{1}·1^{1} ≤ 1 < 10^{0}·1·0^{0}·2^{2} + 10^{1}·2·0^{1}·2^{1} x = 1 01 y = 10^{0}·1·0^{0}·1^{2} + 10^{1}·2·0^{1}·1^{2} = 1 + 0 = 1 00 52 10^{0}·1·1^{0}·2^{2} + 10^{1}·2·1^{1}·2^{1} ≤ 52 < 10^{0}·1·1^{0}·3^{2} + 10^{1}·2·1^{1}·3^{1} x = 2 00 44 y = 10^{0}·1·1^{0}·2^{2} + 10^{1}·2·1^{1}·2^{1} = 4 + 40 = 44 08 27 10^{0}·1·12^{0}·3^{2} + 10^{1}·2·12^{1}·3^{1} ≤ 827 < 10^{0}·1·12^{0}·4^{2} + 10^{1}·2·12^{1}·4^{1} x = 3 07 29 y = 10^{0}·1·12^{0}·3^{2} + 10^{1}·2·12^{1}·3^{1} = 9 + 720 = 729 98 56 10^{0}·1·123^{0}·4^{2} + 10^{1}·2·123^{1}·4^{1} ≤ 9856 < 10^{0}·1·123^{0}·5^{2} + 10^{1}·2·123^{1}·5^{1} x = 4 98 56 y = 10^{0}·1·123^{0}·4^{2} + 10^{1}·2·123^{1}·4^{1} = 16 + 9840 = 9856 00 00 Algorithm terminates: Answer is 12.34
Find the cube root of 4192 to the nearest hundredth.
1 6. 1 2 4 3 / \/ 004 192.000 000 000 004 10^{0}·1·0^{0}·1^{3} + 10^{1}·3·0^{1}·1^{2} + 10^{2}·3·0^{2}·1^{1} ≤ 4 < 10^{0}·1·0^{0}·2^{3} + 10^{1}·3·0^{1}·2^{2} + 10^{2}·3·0^{2}·2^{1} x = 1 001 y = 10^{0}·1·0^{0}·1^{3} + 10^{1}·3·0^{1}·1^{2} + 10^{2}·3·0^{2}·1^{1} = 1 + 0 + 0 = 1 003 192 10^{0}·1·1^{0}·6^{3} + 10^{1}·3·1^{1}·6^{2} + 10^{2}·3·1^{2}·6^{1} ≤ 3192 < 10^{0}·1·1^{0}·7^{3} + 10^{1}·3·1^{1}·7^{2} + 10^{2}·3·1^{2}·7^{1} x = 6 003 096 y = 10^{0}·1·1^{0}·6^{3} + 10^{1}·3·1^{1}·6^{2} + 10^{2}·3·1^{2}·6^{1} = 216 + 1,080 + 1,800 = 3,096 096 000 10^{0}·1·16^{0}·1^{3} + 10^{1}·3·16^{1}·1^{2} + 10^{2}·3·16^{2}·1^{1} ≤ 96000 < 10^{0}·1·16^{0}·2^{3} + 10^{1}·3·16^{1}·2^{2} + 10^{2}·3·16^{2}·2^{1} x = 1 077 281 y = 10^{0}·1·16^{0}·1^{3} + 10^{1}·3·16^{1}·1^{2} + 10^{2}·3·16^{2}·1^{1} = 1 + 480 + 76,800 = 77,281 018 719 000 10^{0}·1·161^{0}·2^{3} + 10^{1}·3·161^{1}·2^{2} + 10^{2}·3·161^{2}·2^{1} ≤ 18719000 < 10^{0}·1·161^{0}·3^{3} + 10^{1}·3·161^{1}·3^{2} + 10^{2}·3·161^{2}·3^{1} x = 2 015 571 928 y = 10^{0}·1·161^{0}·2^{3} + 10^{1}·3·161^{1}·2^{2} + 10^{2}·3·161^{2}·2^{1} = 8 + 19,320 + 15,552,600 = 15,571,928 003 147 072 000 10^{0}·1·1612^{0}·4^{3} + 10^{1}·3·1612^{1}·4^{2} + 10^{2}·3·1612^{2}·4^{1} ≤ 3147072000 < 10^{0}·1·1612^{0}·5^{3} + 10^{1}·3·1612^{1}·5^{2} + 10^{2}·3·1612^{2}·5^{1} x = 4 The desired precision is achieved: The cube root of 4192 is about 16.12
Complex roots
Every complex number other than 0 has n different nth roots.
Square roots
The two square roots of a complex number are always negatives of each other. For example, the square roots of −4 are 2i and −2i, and the square roots of i are
If we express a complex number in polar form, then the square root can be obtained by taking the square root of the radius and halving the angle:
A principal root of a complex number may be chosen in various ways, for example
which introduces a branch cut in the complex plane along the positive real axis with the condition 0 ≤ θ < 2π, or along the negative real axis with −π < θ ≤ π.
Using the first(last) branch cut the principal square root maps to the half plane with nonnegative imaginary(real) part. The last branch cut is presupposed in mathematical software like Matlab or Scilab.
Roots of unity
{{#invoke:mainmain}}
The number 1 has n different nth roots in the complex plane, namely
where
These roots are evenly spaced around the unit circle in the complex plane, at angles which are multiples of . For example, the square roots of unity are 1 and −1, and the fourth roots of unity are 1, , −1, and .
nth roots
Every complex number has n different nth roots in the complex plane. These are
where η is a single nth root, and 1, ω, ω^{2}, ... ω^{n−1} are the nth roots of unity. For example, the four different fourth roots of 2 are
In polar form, a single nth root may be found by the formula
Here r is the magnitude (the modulus, also called the absolute value) of the number whose root is to be taken; if the number can be written as a+bi then . Also, is the angle formed as one pivots on the origin counterclockwise from the positive horizontal axis to a ray going from the origin to the number; it has the properties that and
Thus finding nth roots in the complex plane can be segmented into two steps. First, the magnitude of all the nth roots is the nth root of the magnitude of the original number. Second, the angle between the positive horizontal axis and a ray from the origin to one of the nth roots is , where is the angle defined in the same way for the number whose root is being taken. Furthermore, all n of the nth roots are at equally spaced angles from each other.
As with square roots, the formula above does not define a continuous function over the entire complex plane, but instead has a branch cut at points where θ / n is discontinuous.
Solving polynomials
{{#invoke:see alsoseealso}}
It was once conjectured that all polynomial equations could be solved algebraically (that is, that all roots of a polynomial could be expressed in terms of a finite number of radicals and elementary operations). However, while this is true for third degree polynomials (cubics) and fourth degree polynomials (quartics), the AbelRuffini theorem (1824) shows that this is not true in general when the degree is 5 or greater. For example, the solutions of the equation
cannot be expressed in terms of radicals. (cf. quintic equation)
See also
 Nth root algorithm
 Shifting nthroot algorithm
 Irrational number
 Algebraic number
 Nested radical
 Twelfth root of two
 Superroot
References
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 ↑ B.F. Caviness, R.J. Fateman, "Simplification of Radical Expressions", Proceedings of the 1976 ACM Symposium on Symbolic and Algebraic Computation, p. 329 full text
 ↑ Richard Zippel, "Simplification of Expressions Involving Radicals", Journal of Symbolic Computation 1:189210 (1985) Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print