# Ordered ring

In abstract algebra, an **ordered ring** is a (usually commutative) ring *R* with a total order ≤ such that for all *a*, *b*, and *c* in *R*:^{[1]}

- if
*a*≤*b*then*a*+*c*≤*b*+*c*.

- if 0 ≤
*a*and 0 ≤*b*then 0 ≤*ab*.

## Examples

Ordered rings are familiar from arithmetic. Examples include the integers, the rationals and the real numbers.^{[2]} (The rationals and reals in fact form ordered fields.) The complex numbers, in contrast, do not form an ordered ring or field, because there is no inherent order relationship between the elements 1 and *i*.

## Positive elements

In analogy with the real numbers, we call an element *c* ≠ 0 of an ordered ring **positive** if 0 ≤ *c*, and **negative** if *c* ≤ 0. The element *c* = 0 is considered to be neither positive nor negative.

The set of positive elements of an ordered ring *R* is often denoted by *R*_{+}. An alternative notation, favored in some disciplines, is to use *R*_{+} for the set of nonnegative elements, and *R*_{++} for the set of positive elements.

## Absolute value

If *a* is an element of an ordered ring *R*, then the **absolute value** of *a*, denoted |*a*|, is defined thus:

where -*a* is the additive inverse of *a* and 0 is the additive identity element.

## Discrete ordered rings

A **discrete ordered ring** or **discretely ordered ring** is an ordered ring in which there is no element between 0 and 1. The integers are a discrete ordered ring, but the rational numbers are not.

## Basic properties

For all *a*, *b* and *c* in *R*:

- If
*a*≤*b*and 0 ≤*c*, then*ac*≤*bc*.^{[3]}This property is sometimes used to define ordered rings instead of the second property in the definition above. - |
*ab*| = |*a*| |*b*|.^{[4]} - An ordered ring that is not trivial is infinite.
^{[5]} - Exactly one of the following is true:
*a*is positive, -*a*is positive, or*a*= 0.^{[6]}This property follows from the fact that ordered rings are abelian, linearly ordered groups with respect to addition. - An ordered ring
*R*has no zero divisors if and only if the positive ring elements are closed under multiplication (i.e. if*a*and*b*are positive, then so is*ab*).^{[7]} - In an ordered ring, no negative element is a square.
^{[8]}This is because if*a*≠ 0 and*a*=*b*^{2}then*b*≠ 0 and*a*= (-*b*)^{2}; as either*b*or -*b*is positive,*a*must be positive.

## Notes

The list below includes references to theorems formally verified by the IsarMathLib project.