Orders of magnitude (energy)

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This list compares various energies in joules (J), organized by order of magnitude.

List of orders of magnitude for energy
Factor (Joules) SI prefix Value Item
10−34   6.626×10−34 J Energy of a 1-hertz radio photon.[1]
10−33   2×10−33 J average kinetic energy of translational motion of a molecule at the lowest temperature reached, 100 picokelvins Template:As of[2]
10−28   6.6×10−28 J energy of a typical AM radio photon (1 MHz) (4×10−9 eV)[3]
10−24 yocto- (yJ) 1.6×10−24 J energy of a typical microwave oven photon (2.45 GHz) (1×10−5 eV)[4][5]
10−23   2×10−23 J average kinetic energy of translational motion of a molecule in the Boomerang Nebula, the coldest place known outside of a laboratory, at a temperature of 1 kelvin[6][7]
10−22   2-3000×10−22 J energy of infrared light photons[8]
10−21 zepto- (zJ) 1.7×10−21 J 1 kJ/mol, converted to energy per molecule[9]
2.1×10−21 J thermal energy in each degree of freedom of a molecule at 25 °C (kT/2) (0.01 eV)[10]
2.856×10−21 J by Landauer's principle, the minimum amount of energy required at 25 °C to change one bit of information
3–7×10−21 J energy of a van der Waals interaction between atoms (0.02–0.04 eV)[11][12]
4.1×10−21 J "kT" at 25 °C, a common rough approximation for the total thermal energy of each molecule in a system (0.03 eV)[13]
7–22×10−21 J energy of a hydrogen bond (0.04 to 0.13 eV)[11][14]
10−20   4.5×10−20 J upper bound of the mass-energy of a neutrino in particle physics (0.28 eV)[15][16]
10−19   1.6×10−19 J ≈1 electronvolt (eV)[17]
3–5×10−19 J energy range of photons in visible light[18][19]
3–14×10−19 J energy of a covalent bond (2–9 eV)[11][20]
5–200×10−19 J energy of ultraviolet light photons[8]
10−18 atto- (aJ)    
10−17   2-2000×10−17 J energy range of X-ray photons[8]
10−16      
10−15 femto- (fJ)    
10−14   > 2×10−14 J energy of gamma ray photons[8]
2.7×10−14 J upper bound of the mass-energy of a muon neutrino[21][22]
8.2×10−14 J rest mass-energy of an electron[23]
10−13   1.6×10−13 J 1 megaelectronvolt (MeV)[24]
10−12 pico- (pJ) 2.3×10−12 J kinetic energy of neutrons produced by D-T fusion, used to trigger fission (14.1 MeV)[25][26]
10−11   3.4×10−11 J average total energy released in the nuclear fission of one uranium-235 atom (215 MeV)[27][28]
10−10   1.5030×10−10 J rest mass-energy of a proton[29]
1.505×10−10 J rest mass-energy of a neutron[30]
1.6×10−10 J 1 gigaelectronvolt (GeV)[31]
3×10−10 J rest mass-energy of a deuteron[32]
6×10−10 J rest mass-energy of an alpha particle[33]
10−9 nano- (nJ) 1.6×10−9 J 10 GeV[34]
8×10−9 J initial operating energy per beam of the CERN Large Electron Positron Collider in 1989 (50 GeV)[35][36]
10−8   1.3×10−8 J mass-energy of a W boson (80.4 GeV)[37][38]
1.5×10−8 J mass-energy of a Z boson (91.2 GeV)[39][40]
1.6×10−8 J 100 GeV[41]
2×10−8 J mass-energy of the particle believed to be the Higgs Boson (125.3 GeV)[42]
6.4×10−8 J operating energy per proton of the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron accelerator in 1976[43][44]
10−7   1×10−7 J ≡ 1 erg[45]
1.6×10−7 J 1 TeV (teraelectronvolt),[46] about the kinetic energy of a flying mosquito[47]
5.6×10−7 J energy per proton in the CERN Large Hadron Collider in 2011 (3.5 TeV)[48][49]
10−6 micro- (µJ)    
10−5      
10−4      
10−3 milli- (mJ)    
10−2 centi- (cJ)    
10−1 deci- (dJ) 1.1×10−1 J energy of an American half-dollar falling 1-metre[50][51]
100 J 1 J ≡ 1 N·m (newtonmetre)
1 J ≡ 1 W·s (watt-second)
1 J kinetic energy produced as an extra small apple (~100 grams[52]) falls 1 meter against Earth's gravity[53]
1 J energy required to heat 1 gram of dry, cool air by 1-degree Celsius[54]
1.4 J ≈ 1 ft·lbf (foot-pound force)[45]
4.184 J ≡ 1 thermochemical calorie (small calorie)[45]
4.1868 J ≡ 1 International (Steam) Table calorie[55]
8 J Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin theoretical upper limit for the energy of a cosmic ray coming from a distant source[56][57]
101 deca- (daJ) 5×101 J the most energetic cosmic ray ever detected[58] was most likely a single proton traveling only slightly slower than the speed of light.[59]
102 hecto- (hJ) 1×102 J flash energy of a typical pocket camera electronic flash capacitor (100–400 µF @ 330 V)[60][61]
3×102 J energy of a lethal dose of X-rays[62]
3×102 J kinetic energy of an average person jumping as high as they can[63][64][65]
3.3×102 J energy to melt 1 g of ice[66]
> 3.6×102 J kinetic energy of 800 g[67] standard men's javelin thrown at > 30 m/s[68] by elite javelin throwers[69]
5–20×102 J energy output of a typical photography studio strobe light in a single flash[70]
6×102 J kinetic energy of 2 kg[71] standard men's discus thrown at 24.4 m/s{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst $B=

{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[citation needed] }} by the world record holder Jürgen Schult[72]

6×102 J use of a 10-watt flashlight for 1-minute
7.5×102 J a power of 1 horsepower applied for 1 second[45]
7.8×102 J kinetic energy of 7.26 kg[73] standard men's shot thrown at 14.7 m/s{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst $B=

{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[citation needed] }} by the world record holder Randy Barnes[74]

103 kilo- (kJ) 1.1×103 J ≈ 1 British thermal unit (BTU), depending on the temperature[45]
1.4×103 J total solar radiation received from the Sun by 1 square meter at the altitude of Earth's orbit per second (solar constant)[75]
1.8×103 J kinetic energy of M16 rifle bullet (5.56x45mm NATO M855, 4.1 g fired at 930 m/s)[76]
2.3×103 J energy to vaporize 1 g of water into steam[77]
3×103 J Lorentz force can crusher pinch[78]
3.4×103 J kinetic energy of world-record men's hammer throw (7.26 kg[79] thrown at 30.7 m/s[80] in 1986)[81]
3.6×103 J ≡ 1 W·h (watt-hour)[45]
4.2×103 J energy released by explosion of 1 gram of TNT[45][82]
4.2×103 J ≈ 1 food Calorie (large calorie)
~7×103 J muzzle energy of an elephant gun, e.g. firing a .458 Winchester Magnum[83]
9×103 J energy in an alkaline AA battery[84]
104   1.7×104 J energy released by the metabolism of 1 gram of carbohydrates[85] or protein[86]
3.8×104 J energy released by the metabolism of 1 gram of fat[87]
4–5×104 J energy released by the combustion of 1 gram of gasoline[88]
5×104 J kinetic energy of 1 gram of matter moving at 10 km/s[89]
105   3×105 J15×105 J kinetic energy of an automobile at highway speeds (1 to 5 tons[90] at 89 km/h or 55 mph)[91]
5×105 J kinetic energy of 1 gram of a meteor hitting Earth[92]
106 mega- (MJ) 1×106 J kinetic energy of a 2 tonne[90] vehicle at 32 metres per second (72 miles per hour)[93]
1.2×106 J approximate food energy of a snack such as a Snickers bar (280 food calories)[94]
3.6×106 J = 1 kWh (kilowatt-hour) (used for electricity)[45]
4.2×106 J energy released by explosion of 1 kilogram of TNT[45][82]
8.4×106 J recommended food energy intake per day for a moderately active woman (2000 food calories)[95][96]
107   1×107 J kinetic energy of the armor-piercing round fired by the assault guns of the ISU-152 tank[97]{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst $B=

{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[citation needed] }}

1.1×107 J recommended food energy intake per day for a moderately active man (2600 food calories)[95][98]
3.7×107 J $1 of electricity at a cost of $0.10/kWh (the US average retail cost in 2009)[99][100][101]
4×107 J energy from the combustion of 1 cubic meter of natural gas[102]
4.2×107 J caloric energy consumed by Olympian Michael Phelps on a daily basis during Olympic training[103]
6.3×107 J theoretical minimum energy required to accelerate 1 kg of matter to escape velocity from Earth's surface (ignoring atmosphere)[104]
108   1×108 J kinetic energy of a 55 tonne aircraft at typical landing speed (59 m/s or 115 knots){{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst $B=

{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[citation needed] }}

1.1×108 J ≈ 1 therm, depending on the temperature[45]
1.1×108 J ≈ 1 Tour de France, or ~90 hours[105] ridden at 5 W/kg[106] by a 65 kg rider[107]
1.21×108 J ≈ The energy used by the fictional DeLorean in the "Back to the Future" movie series, traveling at 88 mph expending 1.21 GW of power as it passes from bumper to bumper through a planar singularity.
7.3×108 J ≈ energy from burning 16 kilograms of oil (using 135 kg per barrel of light crude){{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst $B=

{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[citation needed] }}

109 giga- (GJ) 1.10×109 J energy in an average lightning bolt[108] (thunder)
1.1×109 J magnetic stored energy in the world's largest toroidal superconducting magnet for the ATLAS experiment at CERN, Geneva[109]
1.4x109 J theoretical minimum amount of energy required to melt a tonne of steel (380 kWh)[110][111]
2x109 J Energy of an ordinary 61 liter gasoline tank of a car.[88][112][113]
2×109 J Planck energy, the unit of energy in Planck units[114]
3.3×109 J approximate average amount of energy expended by a human heart muscle over an 80-year lifetime[115][116]
4.5×109 J average annual energy usage of a standard refrigerator[117][118]
6.1×109 J ≈ 1 bboe (barrel of oil equivalent)[119]
1010   2.3×1010 J kinetic energy of an Airbus A380 at cruising speed (560 tonnes at 562 knots or 289 m/s){{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst $B=

{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[citation needed] }}

4.2×1010 J ≈ 1 toe (ton of oil equivalent)[119]
5×1010 J yield energy of a Massive Ordnance Air Blast bomb, the second most powerful non-nuclear weapon ever designed[120][121]
7.3×1010 J energy consumed by the average U.S. automobile in the year 2000[122][123][124]
8.6×1010 J ≈ 1 MW·d (megawatt-day), used in the context of power plants[125]
8.8×1010 J total energy released in the nuclear fission of one gram of uranium-235[27][28][126]
1011  
1012 tera- (TJ) 3.4×1012 J max fuel energy of an Airbus A330-300 (97,530 liters[127] of Jet A-1[128])[129]
3.6×1012 J 1 GW·h (gigawatt-hour)[130]
4×1012 J electricity generated by one 20-kg CANDU fuel bundle assuming ~29%[131] thermal efficiency of reactor[132][133]
6.4×1012 J energy contained in jet fuel in a Boeing 747-100B aircraft at max fuel capacity (183,380 liters[134] of Jet A-1[128])[135]
1013   1.1×1013 J energy of the maximum fuel an Airbus A380 can carry (320,000 liters[136] of Jet A-1[128])[137]
1.2×1013 J orbital kinetic energy of the International Space Station (417 tonnes[138] at 7.7 km/s[139])[140]
8.8×1013 J yield of the Little Boy atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima in World War II (21 kilotons)[141][142]
9×1013 J theoretical total mass-energy of 1 gram of matter[143]
1014   6×1014 J energy released by an average hurricane in 1 second[144]
1015 peta- (PJ) > 1015 J energy released by a severe thunderstorm[145]
1×1015 J yearly electricity consumption in Greenland as of 2008[146][147]
4.2×1015 J energy released by explosion of 1 megaton of TNT[45][148]
1016   1×1016 J estimated impact energy released in forming Meteor Crater{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst $B=

{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[citation needed] }}

1.1×1016 J yearly electricity consumption in Mongolia as of 2010[146][149]
9×1016 J mass-energy in 1 kilogram of antimatter (or matter)[150]
1017   1×1017 J energy released on the Earth's surface by the magnitude 9.1–9.3 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake[151]
1.7×1017 J total energy from the Sun that strikes the face of the Earth each second[152]
2.1×1017 J yield of the Tsar Bomba, the largest nuclear weapon ever tested (50 megatons)[153][154]
4.2×1017 J yearly electricity consumption of Norway as of 2008[146][155]
8×1017 J estimated energy released by the eruption of the Indonesian volcano, Krakatoa, in 1883[156][157]
1018 exa- (EJ) 1.4×1018 J yearly electricity consumption of South Korea as of 2009[146][158]
1019   1.4×1019 J yearly electricity consumption in the U.S. as of 2009[146][159]
1.4×1019J yearly electricity production in the U.S. as of 2009[160][161]
5×1019 J energy released in 1-day by an average hurricane in producing rain (400 times greater than the wind energy)[144]
6.4×1019 J yearly electricity consumption of the world Template:As of[162][163]
6.8×1019 J yearly electricity generation of the world Template:As of[162][164]
1020   5x1020 J total world annual energy consumption in 2010[165][166]
8×1020 J estimated global uranium resources for generating electricity 2005[167][168][169][170]
1021 zetta- (ZJ) 6.9×1021 J estimated energy contained in the world's natural gas reserves as of 2010[165][171]
7.9×1021 J estimated energy contained in the world's petroleum reserves as of 2010[165][172]
1022   1.5×1022J total energy from the Sun that strikes the face of the Earth each day[152][173]
2.4×1022 J estimated energy contained in the world's coal reserves as of 2010[165][174]
2.9×1022 J identified global uranium-238 resources using fast reactor technology[167]
3.9×1022 J estimated energy contained in the world's fossil fuel reserves as of 2010[165][175]
4×1022 J estimated total energy released by the magnitude 9.1–9.3 2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake[176]
1023   1×1023 J amount of energy added to climate by anthropogenic greenhouse gasses{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst $B=

{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[citation needed] }}

2.2×1023 J total global uranium-238 resources using fast reactor technology[167]
5×1023 J approximate energy released in the formation of the Chicxulub Crater in the Yucatán Peninsula[177]
1024 yotta- (YJ) 5.5×1024 J total energy from the Sun that strikes the face of the Earth each year[152][178]
1025      
1026   1.3×1026 J conservative estimate of the energy released by the impact that created the Caloris basin on Mercury{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst $B=

{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[citation needed] }}

3.8×1026 J total energy output of the Sun each second[179]
1027      
1028   3.8×1028 J kinetic energy of the Moon in its orbit around the Earth (counting only its velocity relative to the Earth)[180][181]
1029   2.1×1029 J rotational energy of the Earth[182][183][184]
1030   1.8×1030 J gravitational binding energy of Mercury
1031   3.3×1031 J total energy output of the Sun each day[179][185]
1032   2×1032 J gravitational binding energy of the Earth[186]
1033   2.7×1033 J Earth's kinetic energy in its orbit[187]
1034   1.2×1034 J total energy output of the Sun each year[179][188]
1039   6.6×1039 J theoretical total mass-energy of the Moon
1041   5.4×1041 J theoretical total mass-energy of the Earth[189][190]
6.9×1041 J gravitational binding energy of the Sun[191]
1043   5×1043 J total energy of all gamma rays in a typical gamma-ray burst[192][193]
1044   1–2×1044 J estimated energy released in a supernova,[194] sometimes referred to as a foe
1045   few times×1045 J Beaming-corrected 'True' total energy (Energy in gamma rays+relativistic kinetic energy) of hyper-energetic Gamma Ray Burst[195][196][197][198][199]
1046   1×1046 J estimated energy released in a hypernova[200]
1047   1.8×1047 J theoretical total mass-energy of the Sun[201][202]
1047   8.8×1047 J GRB 080916C - the most powerful Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) ever recorded - total 'apparent'/isotropic (not corrected for beaming) energy output estimated at 8.8 × 1047 joules (8.8 × 1054 erg), or 4.9 times the sun’s mass turned to energy.[203]
1053   6x1053 J total mechanical energy or enthalpy in the powerful AGN outburst in the RBS 797[204]
1054   3x1054 J total mechanical energy or enthalpy in the powerful AGN outburst in the Hercules A (3C 348)[205]
1055   1055 J total mechanical energy or enthalpy in the powerful AGN outburst in the MS 0735.6+7421
1058   4×1058 J visible mass-energy in our galaxy, the Milky Way[206][207]
1059   1×1059 J total mass-energy of our galaxy, the Milky Way, including dark matter and dark energy[208][209]
1062   1–2×1062 J total mass-energy of the Virgo Supercluster including dark matter, the Supercluster which contains the Milky Way[210]
1069   4×1069 J estimated total mass-energy of the observable universe[211]

SI multiples

Template:SI multiples Template:SI unit lowercase

See also

{{#invoke:Portal|portal}}

Notes

  1. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/462917/Plancks-constant
  2. Calculated: KE_avg ≈ (3/2) * T * 1.38E-23 = (3/2) * 1E-10 * 1.38E-23 ≈ 2.07E-33 J
  3. Calculated: E_photon = hv = 6.626e-34 J-s * 1e6 Hz = 6.6e-28 J. In eV: 6.6e-28 J / 1.6e-19 J/eV = 4.1e-9 eV.
  4. Template:Cite web
  5. Calculated: E_photon = hv = 6.626e-34 J-s * 2.45e8 Hz = 1.62e-24 J. In eV: 1.62e-24 J / 1.6e-19 J/eV = 1.0e-5 eV.
  6. Template:Cite web
  7. Calculated: KE_avg ≈ (3/2) * T * 1.38E-23 = (3/2) * 1 * 1.38E-23 ≈ 2.07E-23 J
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 Template:Cite web
  9. Calculated: 1e3 J / 6.022e23 entities per mole = 1.7e-21 J per entity
  10. Calculated: 1.381e-23 J/K * 298.15 K / 2 = 2.1e-21 J
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 Template:Cite web
  12. Calculated: 2 to 4 kJ/mol = 2e3 J / 6.022e23 molecules/mol = 3.3e-21 J. In eV: 3.3e-21 J / 1.6e-19 J/eV = 0.02 eV. 4e3 J / 6.022e23 molecules/mol = 6.7e-21 J. In eV: 6.7e-21 J / 1.6e-19 J/eV = 0.04 eV.
  13. Template:Cite web
  14. Calculated: 4 to 13 kJ/mol. 4 kJ/mol = 4e3 J / 6.022e23 molecules/mol = 6.7e-21 J. In eV: 6.7e-21 J / 1.6e-19 eV/J = 0.042 eV. 13 kJ/mol = 13e3 J / 6.022e23 molecules/mol = 2.2e-20 J. In eV: 13e3 J / 6.022e23 molecules/mol / 1.6e-19 eV/J = 0.13 eV.
  15. Template:Cite doi
  16. Calculated: 0.28 eV * 1.6e-19 J/eV = 4.5e-20 J
  17. Template:Cite web
  18. Template:Cite web
  19. Calculated: E = h * c / lambda. E_780_nm = 6.6e-34 kg-m^2/s * 3e8 m/s / (780e-9 m) = 2.5e-19 J. E_390 _nm = 6.6e-34 kg-m^2/s * 3e8 m/s / (390e-9 m) = 5.1e-19 J
  20. Calculated: 50 kcal/mol * 4.184 J/calorie / 6.0e22e23 molecules/mol = 3.47e-19 J. (3.47e-19 J / 1.60e-19 eV/J = 2.2 eV.) and 200 kcal/mol * 4.184 J/calorie / 6.0e22e23 molecules/mol = 1.389e-18 J. (7.64e-19 J / 1.60e-19 eV/J = 8.68 eV.)
  21. {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}
  22. Calculated: 170e3 eV * 1.6e-19 J/eV = 2.7e-14 J
  23. Template:Cite web
  24. Template:Cite web
  25. Template:Cite web
  26. Template:Cite web
  27. 27.0 27.1 Template:Cite web
  28. 28.0 28.1 Template:Cite web
  29. Template:Cite web
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  31. Template:Cite web
  32. Template:Cite web
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  34. Template:Cite web
  35. Template:Cite web
  36. Calculated: 50e9 eV * 1.6e-19 J/eV = 8e-9 J
  37. Template:Cite web
  38. Template:Cite web
  39. Template:Cite doi
  40. Template:Cite web
  41. Template:Cite web
  42. Template:Cite web
  43. Template:Cite web
  44. Calculated: 400e9 eV * 1.6e-19 J/eV = 6.4e-8 J
  45. 45.00 45.01 45.02 45.03 45.04 45.05 45.06 45.07 45.08 45.09 45.10 Template:Cite web
  46. Template:Cite web
  47. Template:Cite web
  48. Template:Cite web
  49. Calculated: 3.5e12 eV per beam * 1.6e-19 J/eV = 5.6e-7 J
  50. Template:Cite web
  51. Calculated: m*g*h = 11.34e-3 kg * 9.8 m/s^2 * 1 m = 1.1e-1 J
  52. Template:Cite web
  53. Calculated: m*g*h = 1e-1 kg * 9.8 m/s^2 * 1 m = 1 J
  54. Template:Cite web
  55. Template:Cite web
  56. Template:Cite web
  57. Calculated: 5e19 eV * 1.6e-19 J/ev = 8 J
  58. Template:Cite web
  59. Template:Cite web
  60. Template:Cite web
  61. Template:Cite web
  62. Template:Cite web
  63. Template:Cite web
  64. Template:Cite web
  65. Kinetic energy at start of jump = potential energy at high point of jump. Using a mass of 70 kg and a high point of 40 cm => energy = m*g*h = 70 kg * 9.8 m/s^2 * 40e-2 m = 274 J
  66. Template:Cite web
  67. Template:Cite web
  68. Template:Cite web
  69. Calculated: 1/2 * 0.8 kg * (30 m/s)^2 = 360 J
  70. Template:Cite web
  71. Template:Cite web
  72. Calculated: 1/2 * 2 kg * (24.4 m/s)^2 = 595.4 J
  73. Template:Cite web
  74. Calculated: 1/2 * 7.26 kg * (14.7 m/s)^2 = 784 J
  75. Template:Cite doi
  76. Template:Cite web
  77. Template:Cite web
  78. powerlabs.org – The PowerLabs Solid State Can Crusher!, 2002
  79. Template:Cite web
  80. Template:Cite web
  81. Calculated: 1/2 * 7.26 kg * (30.7 m/s)^2 = 3420 J
  82. 82.0 82.1 4.2e9 J/ton of TNT-equivalent * (1 ton/1e6 grams) = 4.2e3 J/gram of TNT-equivalent
  83. Template:Cite web
  84. Template:Cite web
  85. Template:Cite web
  86. Template:Cite web
  87. Template:Cite web
  88. 88.0 88.1 Template:Cite web
  89. Calculated: E = 1/2 m*v^2 = 1/2 * (1e-3 kg) * (1e4 m/s)^2 = 5e4 J.
  90. 90.0 90.1 Template:Cite web
  91. Calculated: Using car weights of 1 ton to 5 tons. E = 1/2 m*v^2 = 1/2 * (1e3 kg) * (55 mph * 1600 m/mi / 3600 s/hr) = 3.0e5 J. E = 1/2 * (5e3 kg) * (55 mph * 1600 m/mi / 3600 s/hr) = 15e5 J.
  92. Template:Cite web
  93. Calculated: KE = 1/2 * 2e3 kg * (32 m/s)^2 = 1.0e6 J
  94. Template:Cite web
  95. 95.0 95.1 Template:Cite web
  96. Calculated: 2000 food calories = 2.0e6 cal * 4.184 J/cal = 8.4e6 J
  97. Calculated: 1/2 * m * v^2 = 1/2 * 48.78 kg * (655 m/s)^2 = 1.0e7 J.
  98. Calculated: 2600 food calories = 2.6e6 cal * 4.184 J/cal = 1.1e7 J
  99. Template:Cite web
  100. Calculated J per dollar: 1 million BTU/$28.90 = 1e6 BTU / 28.90 dollars * 1.055e3 J/BTU = 3.65e7 J/dollar
  101. Calculated cost per kWh: 1 kWh * 3.60e6 J/kWh / 3.65e7 J/dollar = 0.0986 dollar/kWh
  102. Template:Cite web
  103. Template:Cite web
  104. Template:Cite web
  105. Template:Cite web
  106. Template:Cite web
  107. Calculated: 90 hr * 3600 seconds/hr * 5 W/kg * 65 kg = 1.1e8 J
  108. Template:Cite web
  109. Template:Cite web
  110. Template:Cite web
  111. Calculated: 380 kW-h * 3.6e6 J/kW-h = 1.37e9 J
  112. Template:Cite web
  113. thepartsbin.com – Volvo Fuel Tank: Compare at The Parts Bin, 6 May 2012
  114. Template:Cite web
  115. Calculated: 1.3 J/s * 80 years * 3.16e7 s/year = 3.3e9 J
  116. Template:Cite web
  117. Calculated: 1239 kWh * 3.6e6 J/kWh = 4.5e9 J
  118. 119.0 119.1 Energy Units, by Arthur Smith, 21 January 2005
  119. Template:Cite web
  120. Calculated: 11 tons of TNT-equivalent * 4.184e9 J/ton of TNT-equivalent = 4.6e10 J
  121. Template:Cite web
  122. Template:Cite web
  123. Calculated: 581 gallons * 125e6 J/gal = 7.26e10 J
  124. Calculated: 1e6 Watts * 86400 seconds/day = 8.6e10 J
  125. Calculated: 3.44e-10 J/U-235-fission * 1e-3 kg / (235 amu per U-235-fission * 1.66e-27 amu/kg) = 8.82e-10 J
  126. Template:Cite web
  127. 128.0 128.1 128.2 http://www.bp.com/liveassets/bp_internet/aviation/air_bp/STAGING/local_assets/downloads_pdfs/a/air_bp_products_handbook_04004_1.pdf
  128. Calculated: 97530 liters * 0.804 kg/L * 43.15 MJ/kg = 3.38e12 J
  129. Calculated: 1e9 Watts * 3600 seconds/hour
  130. Template:Cite web
  131. Template:Cite web
  132. Calculated: 7500e6 Watt-days/tonne * (0.020 tonnes per bundle) * 86400 seconds/day = 1.3e13 J of burnup energy. Electricity = burnup * ~29% efficiency = 3.8e12 J
  133. Template:Cite web
  134. Calculated: 183380 liters * 0.804 kg/L * 43.15 MJ/kg = 6.36e12 J
  135. Template:Cite web
  136. Calculated: 320,000 l * 0.804 kg/L * 43.15  MJ/kg = 11.1e12 J
  137. Template:Cite web
  138. Template:Cite web
  139. Calculated: E = 1/2 m.v² = 1/2 * 417000 kg * (7700m/s)² = 1.2e13 J
  140. Template:Cite web
  141. Calculated: 21 kt = 21e9 grams of TNT-equivalent * 4.2e3 J/gram TNT-equivalent = 8.8e13 J
  142. Template:Cite web
  143. 144.0 144.1 Template:Cite web
  144. Template:Cite web
  145. 146.0 146.1 146.2 146.3 146.4 Template:Cite web
  146. Calculated: 288.6e6 kWh * 3.60e6 J/kWh = 1.04e15 J
  147. Calculated: 4.2e9 J/ton of TNT-equivalent * 1e6 tons/megaton = 4.2e15 J/megaton of TNT-equivalent
  148. Calculated: 3.02e9 kWh * 3.60e6 J/kWh = 1.09e16 J
  149. Calculated: E = mc^2 = 1 kg * (2.998e8 m/s)^2 = 8.99e16 J
  150. Template:Cite web
  151. 152.0 152.1 152.2 The Earth has a cross section of 1.274×1014 square meters and the solar constant is 1361 watts per square meter.
  152. Template:Cite web
  153. Calculated: 50e6 tons TNT-equivalent * 4.2e9 J/ton TNT-equivalent = 2.1e17 J
  154. Calculated: 115.6e9 kWh * 3.60e6 J/kWh = 4.16e17 J
  155. {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}
  156. Calculated: 200e6 tons of TNT equivalent * 4.2e9 J/ton of TNT equivalent = 8.4e17 J
  157. Calculated: 402e9 kWh * 3.60e6 J/kWh = 1.45e17 J
  158. Calculated: 3.741e12 kWh * 3.600e6 J/kWh = 1.347e19 J
  159. Template:Cite web
  160. Calculated: 3.953e12 kWh * 3.600e6 J/kWh = 1.423e19 J
  161. 162.0 162.1 Template:Cite web
  162. Calculated: 17.8e12 kWh * 3.60e6 J/kWh = 6.41e19 J
  163. Calculated: 18.95e12 kWh * 3.60e6 J/kWh = 6.82e19 J
  164. 165.0 165.1 165.2 165.3 165.4 Template:Cite web
  165. Calculated: 12002.4e6 tonnes of oil equivalent * 42e9 J/tonne of oil equivalent = 5.0e20 J
  166. 167.0 167.1 167.2 Global Uranium Resource
  167. U.S. Energy Information Administration, International Energy Generation
  168. U.S. EIA International Energy Outlook 2007.
  169. Final number is computed. Energy Outlook 2007 shows 15.9% of world energy is nuclear. IAEA estimates conventional uranium stock, at today's prices is sufficient for 85 years. Convert billion kilowatt-hours to joules then: 6.25×1019×0.159×85 = 8.01×1020.
  170. Calculated: "6608.9 trillion cubic feet" => 6608.9e3 billion cubic feet * 0.025 million tonnes of oil equivalent/billion cubic feet * 1e6 tonnes of oil equivalent/million tonnes of oil equivalent * 42e9 J/tonne of oil equivalent = 6.9e21 J
  171. Calculated: "188.8 thousand million tonnes" => 188.8e9 tonnes of oil * 42e9 J/tonne of oil = 7.9e21 J
  172. Calculated: 1.27e14 m^2 * 1370 W/m^2 * 86400 s/day = 1.5e22 J
  173. Calculated: 860938 million tonnes of coal => 860938e6 tonnes of coal * (1/1.5 tonne of oil equivalent / tonne of coal) * 42e9 J/tonne of oil equivalent = 2.4e22 J
  174. Calculated: natural gas + petroleum + coal = 6.9e21 J + 7.9e21 J + 2.4e22 J = 3.9e22 J
  175. Template:Cite web
  176. {{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}
  177. Calculated: 1.27e14 m^2 * 1370 W/m^2 * 86400 s/day = 5.5e24 J
  178. 179.0 179.1 179.2 Template:Cite web
  179. Template:Cite web
  180. Calculated: KE = 1/2 * m * v^2. v = 1.023e3 m/s. m = 7.349e22 kg. KE = 1/2 * (7.349e22 kg) * (1.023e3 m/s)^2 = 3.845e28 J.
  181. Template:Cite web
  182. Template:Cite web
  183. Calculated: E_rotational = 1/2 * I * w^2 = 1/2 * (8.0e37 kg m^2) * (2*pi/(23.9345 hour period * 3600 seconds/hour))^2 = 2.1e29 J
  184. Calculated: 3.8e26 J/s * 86400 s/day = 3.3e31 J
  185. Template:Cite web
  186. http://www.uwgb.edu/DutchS/pseudosc/flipaxis.htm
  187. Calculated: 3.8e26 J/s * 86400 s/day * 365.25 days/year = 1.2e34 J
  188. Template:Cite web
  189. Template:Cite web

  190. Chandrasekhar, S. 1939, An Introduction to the Study of Stellar Structure (Chicago: U. of Chicago; reprinted in New York: Dover), section 9, eqs. 90–92, p. 51 (Dover edition)
    Lang, K. R. 1980, Astrophysical Formulae (Berlin: Springer Verlag), p. 272
  191. Template:Cite doi "the gamma-ray energy release, corrected for geometry, is narrowly clustered around 5 * 10^50 erg"
  192. Calculated: 5e50 erg * 1e-7 J/erg = 5e43 J
  193. {{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}
  194. url= http://arxiv.org/abs/1003.3885
  195. url= http://arxiv.org/abs/1004.2900
  196. url= http://arxiv.org/abs/0905.0690
  197. url= http://tsvi.phys.huji.ac.il/presentations/Frail_AstroExtreme.pdf
  198. url= http://fermi.gsfc.nasa.gov/science/mtgs/grb2010/tue/Dale_Frail.ppt
  199. Template:Cite web
  200. Template:Cite web
  201. Template:Cite web
  202. Template:Cite web
  203. url= http://arxiv.org/abs/1103.0630
  204. url= http://iopscience.iop.org/1538-4357/625/1/L9/fulltext/19121.text.html
  205. Template:Cite web
  206. Template:Cite web
  207. Karachentsev, I. D.; Kashibadze, O. G. (2006). "Masses of the local group and of the M81 group estimated from distortions in the local velocity field". Astrophysics 49(1): 3–18. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print.
  208. Template:Cite web
  209. {{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}
  210. http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/ask_astro/answers/980211b.html

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