# Reeb vector field

In mathematics, Weitzenböck's inequality, named after Roland Weitzenböck, states that for a triangle of side lengths ${\displaystyle a}$, ${\displaystyle b}$, ${\displaystyle c}$, and area ${\displaystyle \Delta }$, the following inequality holds:

${\displaystyle a^{2}+b^{2}+c^{2}\geq 4{\sqrt {3}}\,\Delta .}$

Equality occurs if and only if the triangle is equilateral. Pedoe's inequality is a generalization of Weitzenböck's inequality.

## Proofs

The proof of this inequality was set as a question in the International Mathematical Olympiad of 1961. Even so, the result is not too difficult to derive using Heron's formula for the area of a triangle:

{\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}\Delta &{}={\frac {\sqrt {(a+b+c)(a+b-c)(b+c-a)(c+a-b)}}{4}}\\&{}={\frac {1}{4}}{\sqrt {2(a^{2}b^{2}+a^{2}c^{2}+b^{2}c^{2})-(a^{4}+b^{4}+c^{4})}}.\end{aligned}}}

### First method

This method assumes no knowledge of inequalities except that all squares are nonnegative.

{\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}{}&(a^{2}-b^{2})^{2}+(b^{2}-c^{2})^{2}+(c^{2}-a^{2})^{2}\geq 0\\{}\iff &2(a^{4}+b^{4}+c^{4})-2(a^{2}b^{2}+a^{2}c^{2}+b^{2}c^{2})\geq 0\\{}\iff &{\frac {4(a^{4}+b^{4}+c^{4})}{3}}\geq {\frac {4(a^{2}b^{2}+a^{2}c^{2}+b^{2}c^{2})}{3}}\\{}\iff &{\frac {(a^{4}+b^{4}+c^{4})+2(a^{2}b^{2}+a^{2}c^{2}+b^{2}c^{2})}{3}}\geq 2(a^{2}b^{2}+a^{2}c^{2}+b^{2}c^{2})-(a^{4}+b^{4}+c^{4})\\{}\iff &{\frac {(a^{2}+b^{2}+c^{2})^{2}}{3}}\geq (4\Delta )^{2},\end{aligned}}}

and the result follows immediately by taking the positive square root of both sides. From the first inequality we can also see that equality occurs only when ${\displaystyle a=b=c}$ and the triangle is equilateral.

### Second method

This proof assumes knowledge of the rearrangement inequality and the arithmetic-geometric mean inequality.

{\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}&&a^{2}+b^{2}+c^{2}&\geq &&ab+bc+ca\\\iff &&3(a^{2}+b^{2}+c^{2})&\geq &&(a+b+c)^{2}\\\iff &&a^{2}+b^{2}+c^{2}&\geq &&{\sqrt {3(a+b+c)\left({\frac {a+b+c}{3}}\right)^{3}}}\\\iff &&a^{2}+b^{2}+c^{2}&\geq &&{\sqrt {3(a+b+c)(-a+b+c)(a-b+c)(a+b-c)}}\\\iff &&a^{2}+b^{2}+c^{2}&\geq &&4{\sqrt {3}}\Delta .\end{aligned}}}

As we have used the rearrangement inequality and the arithmetic-geometric mean inequality, equality only occurs when ${\displaystyle a=b=c}$ and the triangle is equilateral.

### Third method

It can be shown that the area of the inner Napoleon's triangle is:

${\displaystyle {\frac {1}{6}}(a^{2}+b^{2}+c^{2}-4{\sqrt {3}}\,\Delta )}$

and therefore greater than or equal to 0.