User:Gene Nygaard/sandbox

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To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following list describes various energy levels between 10−31 joules and 1070 joules.

See also: fuel value.

Energies below 1 J

  • 3.0 × 10−31 J (1.8 peV) — average kinetic energy of a molecule at lowest temperature reached (the lowest energy level attained)
  • 1.5 × 10−23 J (0.093 meV) — Average kinetic energy of a molecule at the coldest place known (temperature 1 K)
  • 4.37 × 10−21 J (0.0273 eV) — Average kinetic energy of a molecule at room temperature
  • 1.602 × 10−19 J — Average kinetic energy of a molecule at 11300 °C
  • 2.7–5.2 × 10−19 J — Range of energy of photons of visible light
  • 5.0 × 10−14 — 500,000 eV — Upper bound of mass-energy of Muon neutrino
  • 5.1 × 10−14 — 510,000 eV — mass-energy of electron
  • 1.5 × 10−10 J (940 MeV) — mass-energy of a proton
  • 1.3 × 10−8 J (80.411 GeV) — mass-energy of a W Boson
  • 4.3 × 10−8 J (270 GeV) — Operating energy per beam of the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron accelerator reached in 1981.

Energies between 1 J and 1 E15 J

  • 1 J — The energy required to lift a small apple (102 g) one metre
  • 1 joule is equal to:
  • 4.184 J — 1 thermochemical calorie (small calorie, exact)
  • 4.1868 J — 1 International Table calorie (small calorie, exact)
  • 1,000 J — Energy stored in a typical photography studio strobe unit
  • 1,055 J — 1 British thermal unit
  • 1,360 J — energy received from the Sun at the Earth's orbit by one square metre in one second
  • 4,184 J — energy released by explosion of one gram of TNT
  • 4,186 J — 1 kcal or food calorie
  • 1.7 × 104 J, or 4 dietary calories — energy released by metabolism of one gram of sugar or protein
  • 3.8 × 104 J, or 9 dietary calories — energy released by metabolism of one gram of fat
  • 44,742 J — a power of one horsepower applied for one minute
  • 5.0 × 104 J — energy released by combustion of one gram of gasoline
  • 60,000 J — a power of one kilowatt applied for one minute
  • 200,000–500,000 J — the kinetic energy of a car at highway speeds
  • 745,700 J — a power of 100 horsepower applied for ten seconds
  • 2,684,520 J — a power of one horsepower applied for one hour
  • 4.184 × 106 J — energy released by explosion of one kilogram of TNT
  • 106 J = 239 kcal — the nutritional value of a snack (e.g. a Mars bar) is around that value, typical servings of staple food such as 150 g rice or 200 g wheat bread as well.
  • 1500 kcal = 6.3 × 106 is an often recommended value for the nurtional energy a woman not doing heavy labour needs per day (2000 kcal = 8.4 × 106 for men).
  • 2.68 × 107 J — a power of ten horsepower applied for one hour
  • 4.8 × 107 J — energy released by combustion of one kilogram of gasoline
  • 1.5 × 109 J — energy in an average lightning bolt
  • 1.6 × 109 J — energy in an average tankful (45 litres) of gasoline
  • 3.2 × 109 J — 900 kW·h: approximate annual power use of a standard clothes dryer
  • 3.6 × 109 J — 1000 kW·h
  • 4.184 × 109 J — energy released by explosion of 1 metric ton of TNT
  • 7.2 × 1010 J — energy consumed by the average automobile in the United States in 2000
  • 8.64 × 1010 J — 1 MW·d (megawatt-day), a unit used in the context of power plants
  • 4.184 × 1012 J — energy released by explosion of 1 kiloton of TNT
  • 9.0 × 1014 — 90 GW·h — Yearly production of electricity in Togo

Energies 1 E15 J and above

  • 4.184 × 1015 J — energy released by explosion of 1 megaton of TNT
  • 1.74 × 1016 J — total energy from the Sun that hits the Earth in one second
  • 8.403 TW·h (3.03 × 1016 J) — electricity consumption in Zimbabwe in 1998
  • 9.0 × 1016 J — Theoretical total mass-energy of a kilogram of matter
  • 1.5 × 1017 J (150 PJ) — estimated energy released by Krakatoa eruption
  • 2.5 × 1017 J — energy release of the largest nuclear weapon ever tested
  • 4 × 1017J — 111 TW·h — electricity consumption of Norway in 1998.
  • 1.04 × 1019J — total energy from the Sun that hits the Earth in one minute
  • 1.339 × 1019J — 3719.5 TWh — total production of electrical energy in the US in 2001
  • 9.0 × 1019 J — theoretical total mass-energy of 1000 kg of matter
  • 1.05 × 1020 J — energy consumed by the United States in one year (2001)
  • 1.33 × 1020 J — energy released by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake
  • 4.26 × 1020 J — energy consumed by the world in one year (2001)
  • 6.2 × 1020 J — total energy from the Sun that hits the Earth in one hour
  • 6.0 × 1021 J — energy in world's estimated natural gas reserves (2003)
  • 7.4 × 1021 J — energy in world's estimated petroleum reserves (2003)
  • 2.6 × 1022 J — energy in world's estimated coal reserves (2003)
  • 3.9 × 1022 J — energy in world's estimated total fossil fuel reserves (2003)
  • 1.5 × 1023J — total energy from the Sun that hits the Earth in 24 hours
  • 3.827 × 1026 J — energy output of the Sun in one second
  • 2.30 × 1028 J — energy output of the Sun in one minute
  • 1.2 × 1034 J — energy output of the Sun in one year
  • 1.2 × 1037 J — energy output of the Sun in one millennium
  • 1.2 × 1040 J — energy output of the Sun in a million years
  • 5.37 × 1041 J — Theoretical total mass-energy of the mass of the Earth
  • 6.9 × 1041 J — gravitational binding energy of the Sun
  • 1047 J — The energy released in a gamma ray burst
  • 1.8 × 1047 J — Theoretical total mass-energy of the mass of the Sun
  • 1070 J — Estimated theoretical total mass-energy of the universe (the largest known energy level)

External link

Category:Physics Category:Energy Category:Orders of magnitude (energy)|*

My new table

Comments

  • Need to update rowspan="n" in first column when additions are made
  • For other orders of magnitude, use tables at right; don't add links to them in this table
  • For common units of measure, use links in table at right
  • Maybe separate out table of what 1 joule equals, and conversion from non-SI units to joules.
Range joules alternate quantity comment
10-31 J
to
10-24 J
yoctojoule
yJ
10-24 J
10-24 J
3.6 yJ 0.001 yW·h
15 yJ 93 µeV Average kinetic energy of a molecule at the coldest place known (temperature 1 K)
160.2 yJ 1 meV
zeptojoule
zJ
10-21 J
10-21
3.6 zJ 1 yW·h
4.37 zJ 27.3 meV Average kinetic energy of a molecule at room temperature
160.02 zJ 1 eV electronvolt
attojoule
aJ
10-18 J
10-18 J
3.6 aJ 1 zW·h
160.02 aJ 1 keV
femtojoule
fJ
10-15 J
3.6 fJ 1 aW·h
160.02 fJ 1 MeV
picojoule
pJ
10-12 J
3.6 pJ 1 fW·h
160.02 pJ 1 GeV
nanojoule
nJ
10-9 J
3.6 nJ 1 pW·h
100 nJ 1 erg
160.02 nJ 1 TeV
microjoule
µJ
10-6 J
3.6 µJ 1 nW·h
160.02 µJ 1 PeV
millijoule
mJ
10-3 J
3.6 mJ 1 µW·h
160.02 mJ 1 EeV
joule
J
100 J
3.6 J 1 mW·h
160.02 J 1 ZeV
kilojoule
kJ
103 J
3.6 kJ 1 W·h watt-hour
160.02 kJ 1 YeV
megajoule
MJ
106 J
3.6 MJ 1 kW·h
gigajoule
GJ
109 J
3.6 GJ 1 MW·h
terajoule
TJ
1012 J
3.6 TJ 1 GW·h
petajoule
PJ
1015 J
3.6 PJ 1 TW·h
exajoule
EJ
1018 J
3.6 EJ 1 PW·h
zettajoule
ZJ
1021 J
3.6 ZJ 1 EW·h
yottajoule
YJ
1024 J
3.6 YJ 1 ZW·h
1027 J
to
1070 J

Another table

Google hits

Other stuff

1 kilogram-force = 9.80665 newtons


x


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{{coord|12|02|36|S|77|42||W}} too few elements

Template:Coord 12° 2′36″ S 77° 1′ 42″ W

Date formatting software problems

checking to see if they have been fixed 13:22, 21 May 2005 (UTC)

[[15 March]] [[44 BC]] (15 March 44 BC) displays as -0043-03-15 (correct) and 15 March 44 BC (correct)

[[-0044-03-15]] (-0044-03-15) displays as -0044-03-15 (correct) and 15 March 43 BC (incorrect, should be 15 March 45 BC). Watch the formatted version here to see if they ever agree. Gene Nygaard 13:22, 21 May 2005 (UTC)


Middot size

GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG

G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G

G·G·G·G·G·G·G·G·G·G·G·G·G·G·G·G·G·G·G·G·G

convert

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3 (pre-1954 U.S.) nautical miles (5,559.75 m)
3 (pre-1954 U.S.) nautical miles (5,559.745999491998983997967995936 m) about 11.19 mm more
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T:W

http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Specific_impulse&curid=40250&diff=18059550&oldid=18054212

In addition it is important that thrust and specific impulse not be confused with one another. The specific impulse is a measure of the thrust per unit of propellent that is expelled, while thrust is a measure of the momentary or peak force supplied by a particular engine. In fact, propulsion systems with very high specific impulses (such as ion thrusters: 3,000 seconds) often produce low thrusts, due to low propellent flow (micrograms per second).

In addition it is important that thrust and specific impulse not be confused with one another. The specific impulse is a measure of the thrust per unit of propellent that is expelled, while thrust is a measure of the momentary or peak force supplied by a particular engine. In fact, propulsion systems with very high specific impulses (such as ion thrusters: 3,000 seconds) are power limited to producing low thrusts, due to the relatively high weight of power generators.

Spaces

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 

1111111111

8888888888

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 

1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  0  

1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  0 

1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  0  

123456°45'33.221" 123456°45'33.221" 123456°45'33.221" 123456°45'33.221" 123456°45'33.221" 123456°45'33.221" 123456°45'33.221" 123456°45'33.221"

123456°45′33.221″ 123456°45′33.221″ 123456°45′33.221″ 123456°45′33.221″ 123456°45′33.221″ 123456°45′33.221″ 123456°45′33.221″ 123456°45′33.221″

123456° 45′ 33.221″ 123456° 45′ 33.221″ 123456° 45′ 33.221″ 123456° 45′ 33.221″ 123456° 45′ 33.221″ 123456° 45′ 33.221″ 123456° 45′ 33.221″ 123456° 45′ 33.221″

123456° 45' 33.221" 123456° 45' 33.221" 123456° 45' 33.221" 123456° 45' 33.221" 123456° 45' 33.221" 123456° 45' 33.221" 123456° 45' 33.221" 123456° 45' 33.221"

123456° 45' 33.221" 123456° 45' 33.221" 123456° 45' 33.221" 123456° 45' 33.221" 123456° 45' 33.221" 123456° 45' 33.221" 123456° 45' 33.221" 123456° 45' 33.221"

123456° 45′ 33.221″ 123456° 45′ 33.221″ 123456° 45′ 33.221″ 123456° 45′ 33.221″ 123456° 45′ 33.221″ 123456° 45′ 33.221″ 123456° 45′ 33.221″ 123456° 45′ 33.221″

General characteristics

  • Crew: {{{crew}}}
{{airtemp-capacity-{{{cargo or passengers}}}|capacity={{{capacity}}} }}
  • Length: {{{length main}}} ({{{length alt}}})
  • Wingspan: {{{span main}}} ({{{span alt}}})
  • Height: {{{height main}}} ({{{height alt}}})
  • Wing area: {{{area main}}}² ({{{area alt}}}²)
  • Empty weight: {{{empty main}}} ({{{empty alt}}})
  • Loaded weight: {{{loaded main}}} ({{{loaded alt}}})
  • Maximum takeoff weight: {{{mtow main}}} ({{{mtow alt}}})
{{Airtemp-jet-{{{jet}}}| |engine={{{engine}}} |type of engine={{{type of engine}}} |number of engines={{{number of engines}}} |power main={{{power main}}} |power alt={{{power alt}}} }}

Performance

  • Maximum speed: {{{max speed main}}} ({{{max speed alt}}})
  • Cruise speed: {{{cruise speed main}}} ({{{cruise speed alt}}})
  • Maximum range: {{{range main}}} ({{{range alt}}})
  • Service ceiling: {{{ceiling main}}} ({{{ceiling alt}}})
  • Rate of climb: {{{climb rate main}}} ({{{climb rate alt}}})
{{{performance etc}}} {{Airtemp-mil-{{{military}}}|weapons={{{weapons}}} }}

SI prefixes

SI prefixes
deca hecto kilo mega giga tera peta exa zetta yotta
deci centi milli micro nano pico femto atto zepto yocto
SI prefixes
deca da hecto h kilo k mega M giga G tera T peta P exa E zetta Z yotta Y
deci d centi c milli m micro µ nano n pico p femto f atto a zepto z yocto y

Documentation

As of this posting, 07:30, 12 March 2006 (UTC), the "What links here" for the nonexistent article Te Aupouri (there is an article at "Te Aupōuri", with no redirect from the version without the macron) is as follows:

The following pages link to here: View (previous 50) (next 50) (20 | 50 | 100 | 250 | 500).

   * Aupouri Peninsula
   * List of Maori iwi
   * Shane Jones

View (previous 50) (next 50) (20 | 50 | 100 | 250 | 500).

Now, of course, my sandbox should get added to that list. Gene Nygaard 07:30, 12 March 2006 (UTC)

10000000000000000+

working

(using symbols on both sides, as often appropriate in tables, to avoid confusion in this discussion about the distinction between the use of nbsp with symbols and with spelled-out words)

  • Acceptable: 340&nbsp;W (3.4×10<sup>9</sup>&nbsp;erg/s)
  • Unacceptable: 340&nbsp;W&nbsp;(3.4×10<sup>9</sup>&nbsp;erg/s)

Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary (on-line at http://www.m-w.com/cgi-bin/dictionary ):

  weight:
     6 a : relative heaviness : MASS
       b : the force with which a body is attracted toward the earth or
           a celestial body by gravitation and which is equal to the
           product of the mass and the local gravitational acceleration 


http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/WEIGHT Main Entry:

1weight Listen to the pronunciation of 1weight

Pronunciation:

\ˈwāt\

Function:

noun

Etymology:

Middle English wight, weght, from Old English wiht; akin to Old Norse vætt weight, Old English wegan to weigh

Date:

before 12th century

1 a: the amount that a thing weighs b (1): the standard or established amount that a thing should weigh (2): one of the classes into which contestants in a sports event are divided according to body weight (3): poundage required to be carried by a horse in a handicap race

2 a: a quantity or thing weighing a fixed and usually specified amount b: a heavy object (as a metal ball) thrown, put, or lifted as an athletic exercise or contest

3 a: a unit of weight or mass — see METRIC SYSTEM table b: a piece of material (as metal) of known specified weight for use in weighing articles c: a system of related units of weight

4 a: something heavy : LOAD b: a heavy object to hold or press something down or to counterbalance

5 a: BURDEN, PRESSURE <the weight of their responsibilities> b: the quality or state of being ponderous c: CORPULENCE

6 a: relative heaviness : MASS b: the force with which a body is attracted toward the earth or a celestial body by gravitation and which is equal to the product of the mass and the local gravitational acceleration

7 a: the relative importance or authority accorded something <the weight of her opinions> b: measurable influence especially on others <throwing his weight behind the proposal>

8: overpowering force

9: the quality (as lightness) that makes a fabric or garment suitable for a particular use or season —often used in combination <summer-weight>

10: a numerical coefficient assigned to an item to express its relative importance in a frequency distribution11: the degree of thickness of the strokes of a type character synonyms see IMPORTANCE, INFLUENCE [WEIGHT TABLE]

1. all mass
2. standards of mass
3. the METRIC SYSTEM table has no units of force at all; it has units of mass, of course
4. physical objects, of indeterminate mass or force due to gravity
5. figurative
6. cross-reference to synonym MASS in (a), juxtaposed with a meaning in (b) that is not mass, but rather force
7. figurative
8. force with a different meaning
9. figurative
10. mathematics jargon


Webster’s Third New International Dictionary, 1976:

1weight \’wāt, usu -ād·+V\ n -s [ME weght, wight, fr. OE wiht: akin to MHG gewiht weight, ON vætt weight, OE wegan to weigh—more at WEIGH] 1 a : the often specified amount that a thing weighs : quantity of heaviness <a basketball player with a playing ~ of 215 pounds> <two hundred and fifty pounds is considered the most desirable ~ for butchering . . . hogs —F.J. Haskin> <a diamond of five carats ~> <gross ~> <net ~> — see LEGAL WEIGHT b (1) : the standard or established amount that a given thing should weigh — see SHORT WEIGHT (2) : one of the classes into which contestants in a sports event (as a boxing or wrestling match) or other contest are divided according to their body weight <preliminary bouts in several ~s> <learnt when to stand and fight at his own ~ —H.A. Sinclair> — see FEATHERWEIGHT; compare CATCHWEIGHT (3) : the poundage including that of the jockey, equipment, and any added lead that is necessary to make up the total required to be carried by a horse in a handicap race according to its rated ability (4) : BASIS WEIGHT 2 a : a quantity or thing weighing a fixed and usu. specified amount <equal ~ of water and air> <the necessary ~ of cold water is placed in a large steam-jacketed cooking kettle —Bindery Glues> b : a heavy object (as a ball of metal) that is thrown, put, or lifted as an athletic game or exercise — compare HAMMER 4, SHOT 2b c : one of the iron disks used in playing the game of shuffleboard 3 a : a unit of weight or mass — see MEASURE table, METRIC SYSTEM table b : a piece of metal, glass, wood, or ohter material having an exact specified weight for use in weighing other articles !as in a scale) cdial: a customary local unit for a particular commodity d : a system of related units of weight <avoirdupois ~> <troy ~> eAustral: pennyweight 4 a : a ponderous mass : something heavy :LOAD <a heavy ~ to carry so far b : a heavy contrivance or object to hold or press something down or to counterbalance: as (1) : a piece of lead or other relatively heavy material attached to a fishing line to cause it to sink (2) : paperweight <a collection of very good-looking ~s —New Yorker> (3) : a piece of lead sewed into a hem (as of a coat or curtain) to keep it hanging straight <drapery ~s> (4) : a heavy metal object used to drive a clock c : the heaviness of overlying material (as a rock over a mine shaft) d : corpulence <had grown portly with the years, but carried his ~ well —F.J. Mather> 5 a : burden, pressure <could force a rescue by sheer ~ of numbers —T.B. Costain> <hangs like some guilty ~ of dark, unfathomed remembrances upon my energies —Thomas De Quincey> <never thought her poor brain could stand the ~ of such a secret —Kathleen Freeman> <the ~ of sky and stone seemed to slow the pace of the Sunday walkers —Kay Boyle> b : ponderousness <empire fell to pieces of its own ~, largely because it had never been able to build any system of government except a simple tyranny —C.S. Forester> 6 a : relative heaviness : ponderability regarded as a property of matter <~ is a quality of material substances> b : the force with which a body is attracted toward the earth or a celestial body by gravitation and which is a quantity dependent on the place where it is determined : the product of the mass of a body by the local gravitational acceleration expressed in any of the units (as pound, ounce, newton, or dyne) by which force is measured 7 a : the relatively great importance or authority accorded something <had a great reputation in the parish for sober living and ~ in business —Mary Deasy> <discussion of the merits and demerits of toll roads produced a debate of considerable ~ —N.Y. Times> b : measurable influence esp. in determining the acts of others <throw one’s ~ behind a candidate> <the professor had a lot of ~ to throw around the campus —Bennett Cerf> c : power to influence the judgment <their opinions always carried ~ —A.W. Long> <gives some ~ to his assertion that the act was sudden and unpremeditated —E.L. Pearson> <these replies lend ~ to the generally-expressed view —Wall Street Jour.> 8 : something acting with heavy or overpowering force <principles and rules . . . have petrified with the accumulated ~ of precedent on precedent —B.N. Cardozo> <futile to think of escape from the ~ of global responsibilities —Oscar Handlin> <having first justified with a ~ of scholarship my unscholarly assumption —F.R. Leavis> 9 : the pull required to draw a bow to the full extent and measured in pounds 10 : the quality (as lightness or heaviness) that makes a fabric or garment suitable or adaptable for a particular use or season — often used in combination <dress-weight> 11 :ATOMIC WEIGHT12 : the degree of thickness of the strokes of a type character 13 : stress value, quantity, or general sonority in individual sounds, syllables, and units of rhythmic structure in verse 14 a : a relative value assigned to an item in a group or series under consideration <the use of some system of ~s for different skills is difficult —W.E. Moore> <few data are available on the relative ~ of various emotions —J.E. Anderson> <if you have five problems . . . allot your time proportionately unless a ~ is given —W.F. Crum> <the most useful direct source was given a ~ of ten, the second most useful, a ~ of nine —Saul Herner> b (1) : the frequency of an item in a frequency distribution (2) : a number assigned to express the relative importance of such an item (3) : the factor by which the value of such an item is multiplied in forming the weighted averate of the values of the various items syn see IMPORTANCE, INFLUENCE

1901

Noel Charlton Little, College Physics, Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1928.

[165]

150. Units of Force and Mass. No name has yet been given to the unit of mass and, in fact, as we have developed the theory of dynamics no name is necessary. Whenever the mass, m, appears in our formulae, we substitute the ratio of the convenient force-acceleration pair (w/g), and measure the mass in lbs. per ft./sec.² or in grams per cm./sec.² (using respectively for the numerical value of g, 32 and 980). At this point, however, it should be mentioned that the weight of a body is a force depending not only upon the presence of the body in the vicinity of the earth, but also varying as the body is moved from place to place over the earth. A body weighs less at the equator than at the poles, less on a mountain top than at sea level. By international agreement, however, the weight of a body at sea level, midway between the equator and the poles, is to be considered as standard. More precisely the standard weight of a body is defined as its weight at a place where g = 980.665 cm./sec.² The standard weight of a body thus furnishes us with a definition of force. The gram, one thousandth part of the weight of the Internationale Kilogramme des Archives, preserved at Paris, is a convenient unit of force. The pound of the English system is fixed as 1/2.204622 of this same standard kilogram weight. Both these units of force on account of their relation to weight are known as gravitational units. We have already mentioned that unit of force, called the dyne, approximately one thousand times as small as the gram, but precisely defined as 1/980.655 [sic] part of this unit of force. The dyne is used extensively by scientists. The number 980.655 [sic] as here used, although numerically equal to the standard acceleration of gravity is not the acceleration, g, but a dimensionless conversion factor expressing the number of dynes per standard gram. The unit of mass, derived when the dyne is used as a unit of force, is the dyne per cm./sec.² This unit of mass, however, is given a name and called a gram. It is distinctly unfortunate that general usage gives the same name, gram, to both a unit of force and a unit of mass. Confusion, however, is avoided because when the gram of mass is used as a unit in the fundamental equation, the corresponding unit of force is the dyne. The gram of mass and the gram of force must never be used simultaneously as units in the same equation. On account of the way in which we have defined the dyne, it follows that a gram of mass weighs precisely a standard gram of force, so that a knowledge of the standard weight of a body enables one to tell its mass as measured in grams. Since the gram of mass is nothing but a name for the derived unit, dynes per cm./sec.², an unbalanced force of one dyne produces an acceleration of one centimeter per second per second in a mass of one gram. On the other hand, since a gram of force is equivalent to 980 dynes, one gram of force produces an acceleration of 980 cm./sec.² in the same one gram mass. The dyne of force and the gram of mass are called absolute units. Because the gram of mass in the absolute system has a standard weight equal to the gram of force in the gravitational system, the names of the units in which we have measured electrochemical equivalents and specific or latent heats need not be changed if we understand that the gram refers to a gram of mass. 151. Example. Distinguishing between Mass and Force. To illustrate the use of gravitational and absolute units, consider a 10 gram block resting upon a smooth horizontal table. To this block is to be attached a cord which passes over a pulley of negligible mass and friction fastened to the edge of the table (Fig. 103) Suspended from the lower end of this cord is another 10 gram weight. What is the acceleration of the system and the tension in the cord? ... 152. The F. P. S. and C. G. S. Systems. In order to aid the student in distinguishing between the gravitational and absolute systems, we shall use the latter exclusively with metric units. We shall then have but two fundamental sets of units, as follows:– English Metric Concept Gravitational (f.p.s) Absolute (c.g.s.) Force pound dyne Length foot centimeter Time second second

We have seen that the English unit of mass, the lb. per ft./sec.², has no name, but that the absolute metric unit of mass, the dyne per cm./sec.², is given the name of gram. For this reason, this latter system is often called the c.g.s. system from the initial letters of centimeter, gram and second. From our point of view, however, it would be more appropriately called the c.d.s. system, for it is the centimeter, dyne and second which are to be used in measuring the fundamental concepts. The gram is to be used of course, but as a name of the derived unit of mass, the dyne per cm./sec.². In what units will other derived concepts be expressed and how will they be computed in these two systems?

New section

I realize that using templates will probably allow you to do a better job of making conversions than if you did them with a calculator or with pencil and paper. But when they've already been done by someone else, that someone else is most likely a whole lot more competent at making them than you are. Please leave them alone. For example, here are some of the conversions you added to Space Shuttle in several different edits.

Grading ArielGold changes
was ArielGold template ArielGold seen GN says notes
The payload capacity is 50,000 lb (22,700 kg). convertW|50000|lb|kg|1|lk=on The payload capacity is 50,000 pounds (22,679.6 kg). original or "50,000 lb (23,000 kg)" or "50,000 lb (23 t)" [1]
each provide 2.8 million lbs of thrust at liftoff, convertW|2800000|lb|kg|1 each provide 2,800,000 pounds (1,270,058.6 kg) of thrust at liftoff 2.8 million lbf (12.5 MN) [2][1]
about 150,000 feet (45.7 km), convert|150000|ft|km|lk=on about 150,000 feet (45.72 km), original [1][3]
about ½ inch (1.27 cm) thick [had just been changed to] about ½ inch (12.7 cm) thick convert|.5|in|cm|lk=on about .5 inches (1.27 cm) thick retain the common fraction either ½ inch (13 mm) or ½ inch (10 mm) [1][4][3][5][6]
It weighs 7,500 lb (3.4 t) less convertW|7500|lb|S/T|2|lk=on| It weighs 7,500 pounds (3.75 S/T) less original [5][1][7]
Operational altitude: 100 to 520 nmi (185 to 1,000 km) convert|100|nmi|km|2|abbr=off|lk=on
convert|520|nmi|km|1|lk=on
Operational altitude: 100 nautical miles (185.2 km) to 520 nautical miles (963 km) 100 to 520 nmi (190 to 960 km) [8][1]
Speed: 27,404 ft/s (7,643 m/s, 27,875 km/h, 17,321 mi/h) convert|27404|ft/s|mph|0|abbr=off|lk=on (7,643 [[Mile#Statute miles|m]]/s, 27,875 km/h) Speed: 27,404 foot per second (18,685 mph) (7,643 m/s, 27,875 km/h) original (might be overprecision in all of them, needs looking into [9][10]
Crossrange: 1,085 nmi (2,009 km) convert|1085|nmi|km|2|lk=on Crossrange: 1,085 nautical miles (2,009.42 km) original [1]
giving roughly 200 mph (90 m/s) of delta-v. convert|200|mph|km/h|1 giving roughly 200 miles per hour (321.9 km/h) of delta-v original [5][1][3]
at about 400,000 ft (120 km) convert|400000|ft|km|lk=on at about 400,000 feet (121.92 km), original [1]
reduced from 424 mph (682 km/h) to approximately 215 mph (346 km/h), (compared to 160 mph (260 km/h) for a jet airliner), at touch-down. The landing gear is deployed while the Orbiter is flying at 267 mph (430 km/h). To assist the speed brakes, a 40 ft (12 m) drag chute is deployed either after main gear or nose gear touchdown (depending on selected chute deploy mode) at about 213 mph (343 km/h). It is jettisoned as the Orbiter slows through 69 mph (110 km/h). convert|424|mph|km/h|1|abbr=on|lk=on
convert|215|mph|km/h|1
convert|160|mph|km/h|1|abbr=on
convert|267|mph|km/h|1
ft to m|40
convert|213|mph|km/h|1
convert|69|mph|km/h|1
reduced from 424 mph (682.4 km/h) to approximately 215 miles per hour (346 km/h), (compared to 160 mph (257.5 km/h) for a jet airliner), at touch-down. The landing gear is deployed while the orbiter is flying at 267 miles per hour (429.7 km/h). To assist the speed brakes, a 40 feet (12 m) drag chute is deployed, either after main gear or nose gear touchdown (depending on selected chute deploy mode) at about 213 miles per hour (342.8 km/h). The chute is jettisoned as the orbiter slows through 69 miles per hour (111 km/h). original [1][11]
notes
  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 You need to choose the proper precision for the results
  2. You need to properly identify the units you are converting from.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Terms such as "about" and "roughly" are especially important clues as to precision.
  4. You need a leading zero.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 You need to choose the proper units to be converted to. In these cases, the previous editors had already used the proper units, and you improperly changed them.
  6. Template does not use the proper singular form
  7. At least one of the symbols used by your template is improper
  8. Grouping precisions together can vastly improve their readability.
  9. You have improperly changed a symbol, moved the link to the wrong number and linked the wrong symbol to that link
  10. Template does not use the proper plural form.
  11. The spelled out vs. abbreviated choices are questionable.

Additional problem: Your templates will not show significant zeros following the decimal point.

I haven't commented on your linking choices.

You made some other changes with other templates, too. I just looked for "convert" which found the "convertW" as well, and one {{ft to m}} got in with the bunch. The {{convert}} template seems to be a little more polished than the {{convertW}}.

Kjell Qvale

Pebble Beach Concours d'Elegance

Corkscrew at Mazda Raceway Laguna Seca

I Never Look Back, autobiography, c. 2005 Kjell Qvale then ca. age 86 (85 mentioned in some sorties), probably born ca. 1919 in Norway

Founded in 1984 First National Bank of Marin (FNBM) in San Rafael, California, now Credit One Bank.

Bought a good share of Jensen Motors and with Donald Healey created the Jensen-Healey sports car.

Racehorses--bought Silky Sullivan in 1963. Owned Variety Road, 1988 winner of Silky Sullivan Handicap race. Owned Silveyville, 1986 winner of San Marcos Stakes. Qvale was a member of the Pacific Racing Association that owned Golden Gate Fields for many years: "Owned and managed for 25 years by the last owner of Silky Sullivan, the foreign car importer and horseman, Kjell Qvale, Golden Gate Fields is now part of the Magna Entertainment Corp. (who also own Santa Anita Park and the San Luis Rey Downs Training Center Bonsall, California)."

Indy 500 owner in 1950s, 1960s

British Motor Car Distributors, San Francisco http://www.bmcd.com/

http://www.bmcd.com/qvalebook.cfm book review of autobiography at British Motor Car Distributors with Forward (foreword) by Keith Crain, Publisher, Automotive News

http://www.carlist.com/autonews/2005/autonews_128.html part 1 http://www.carlist.com/autonews/2005/autonews_127.html part 2 Kjell Qvale: An Automotive pioneer, part 1 by Jon Rosner

http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/c/a/2008/01/20/SP7SUI8IF.DTL Qvale makes comeback at 88

Larry Stumes, Special to The Chronicle

Sunday, January 20, 2008 Printable Version Email This Article delicious del.icio.us digg Digg technorati Technorati reddit Reddit facebook Facebook slashdot Slashdot fark Fark newsvine Newsvine google Google Bookmarks (0) Georgia (default) Verdana Times New Roman Arial Kjell Qvale (second from the left) and trainer Roger Hans... Sports

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Long-time thoroughbred owner and breeder Kjell Qvale, an 88-year-old San Francisco business icon, is proving that it's never too late in life to make a comeback.

Qvale went through many lean years after campaigning some of Northern California's best horses - most notably Silveyville, Variety Road and Borrego Sun - in the 1980s and early '90s.

From 1996 through 2006, Qvale averaged just 14.2 victories and $271,798 in earnings per year and had win and in-the-money percentages of 12.4 and 41.8, respectively.

Since then, he has had 30 winners from 155 starters (19.4 percent) with 90 in-the-money finishes (58.1 percent). His horses earned $665,792 in 2007 and $106,198 already this year. He even has a budding star in Tribesman, a dazzling sprinter who has won four straight races.

Qvale and his private trainer, Roger Hansen, have been working together since 1989, when they had nearly 200 horses and a ranch in Borrego Springs (eastern San Diego County). In the process of cutting back, Qvale bought a ranch in Idaho, where Hansen and his wife, Shirley, wanted to raise their children.

"I spent a lot of time in Idaho, too, because I have a house in Sun Valley," Qvale said. "I figured it was a damned good place to raise horses, and I had it for seven or eight years. I didn't do badly when I was in Idaho, but I didn't get any big ones."

Qvale bought a ranch in Sebastopol, and Hansen and his family moved to the area in June.

"That's given my trainer a chance to be a lot closer to the races," Qvale said. "It's a matter of paying close attention. A lot has to do with our early training that we do at the ranch."

Qvale and Hansen credit a device called an Equisizer that allows a horse to gallop without a rider on its back.

"We've brought a lot of them to the track in better shape because they've done a lot of galloping," Qvale said. "Early training is all right, but it's a tough thing with a lot of weight on their back. This way there is no stress."

"We're starting with horses barely a year old and developing race muscles instead of having them stand out in a pasture," Hansen said. "Shirley deserves a lot of credit for spending time with them and working with their legs, and my assistant at the racetrack, Israel Diaz, is on top of everything pretty well."

Qvale, 88, is the founder of British Motors and was a member of the Pacific Racing Association that owned Golden Gate Fields for many years.

"I was a pilot in the Navy during World War II, and a guy took me to the races at Bay Meadows," Qvale said. "William P. Kyne owned the track, and he invited us to come into his special room where we had lunch and free drinks and also made a few bets. That got me hooked. When I got out of the Navy and was working in the late '40s, I bought a horse, a $10,000 claimer, and started him the next day and he won. I bought a second horse, took him to Seattle and he won a stakes. So that's two horses I bought and they both won first time out. That would nail anybody to the game."

Qvale certainly has the means to buy expensive horses and try to make it to the Kentucky Derby or Breeders' Cup. But he prefers breeding mares that he owns like Exquisite Love (Tribesman's dam) to California stallions like Tribal Rule (Tribesman's sire).

"I don't want to throw millions of dollars on horses that may not even win a race," Qvale said. "Excitement is finding something that looks right and has decent breeding and making something special out of him. I buy a couple from Kentucky every year, but basically I'm breeding and raising California-breds. I've been very busy in my life and very successful, and I've had more fun with horses than with any of the other things I've done. I'm very pleased with what we are doing right now."

He is especially pleased with Tribesman, who set a Tapeta Footings [synthetic racetrack surface] record of 1:08.32 for 6 furlongs when he won the Sausalito Stakes on Nov. 23 and then clocked 1:08.34 in an allowance victory Sunday.

"We're hoping Tribesman is something more that what he's doing right now," Qvale said. "This horse is sort of remarkable. He takes everything out of himself when he runs, and he's shown some extreme exhaustion because of the effort he puts out. I'll run in bigger races when the time comes, but I can't overdo it. I just want him to be sound and race and improve."

Larry Stumes is a freelance writer. You can e-mail him at scare0103@aol.com.