# Vertex-transitive graph

In the mathematical field of graph theory, a **vertex-transitive graph** is a graph *G* such that, given any two vertices v_{1} and v_{2} of *G*, there is some automorphism

such that

In other words, a graph is vertex-transitive if its automorphism group acts transitively upon its vertices.^{[1]} A graph is vertex-transitive if and only if its graph complement is, since the group actions are identical.

Every symmetric graph without isolated vertices is vertex-transitive, and every vertex-transitive graph is regular. However, not all vertex-transitive graphs are symmetric (for example, the edges of the truncated tetrahedron), and not all regular graphs are vertex-transitive (for example, the Frucht graph and Tietze's graph).

## Finite examples

Finite vertex-transitive graphs include the symmetric graphs (such as the Petersen graph, the Heawood graph and the vertices and edges of the Platonic solids). The finite Cayley graphs (such as cube-connected cycles) are also vertex-transitive, as are the vertices and edges of the Archimedean solids (though only two of these are symmetric). Potočnik, Spiga and Verret have constructed a census of all connected cubic vertex-transitive graphs on at most 1280 vertices.^{[2]}

Although every Cayley graph is vertex-transitive, there exist other vertex-transitive graphs that are not Cayley graphs. The most famous example is the Petersen graph, but others can be constructed including the line graphs of edge-transitive non-bipartite graphs with odd vertex degrees.^{[3]}

## Properties

The edge-connectivity of a vertex-transitive graph is equal to the degree *d*, while the vertex-connectivity will be at least 2(*d*+1)/3.^{[4]}
If the degree is 4 or less, or the graph is also edge-transitive, or the graph is a minimal Cayley graph, then the vertex-connectivity will also be equal to *d*.^{[5]}

## Infinite examples

Infinite vertex-transitive graphs include:

- infinite paths (infinite in both directions)
- infinite regular trees, e.g. the Cayley graph of the free group
- graphs of uniform tessellations (see a complete list of planar tessellations), including all tilings by regular polygons
- infinite Cayley graphs
- the Rado graph

Two countable vertex-transitive graphs are called quasi-isometric if the ratio of their distance functions is bounded from below and from above. A well known conjecture stated that every infinite vertex-transitive graph is quasi-isometric to a Cayley graph. A counterexample was proposed by Diestel and Leader in 2001.^{[6]} In 2005, Eskin, Fisher, and Whyte confirmed the counterexample.^{[7]}

## See also

## References

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## External links

- Weisstein, Eric W., "Vertex-transitive graph",
*MathWorld*. - A census of small connected cubic vertex-transitive graphs . Primož Potočnik, Pablo Spiga, Gabriel Verret, 2012.